Why (nuclear) fusion?

thebulletin.org

Robert J. Goldston

The 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report included publication on the web of a wide range of scenarios for the future, produced by energy and environment modelers from all over the world. If we select an  internationally coordinated set of scenarios that are consistent with a temperature rise of less than 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above the pre-industrial era—the upper-limit goal of the Paris Climate Accords—and average their projections, we find the projection for future electricity production in the table below, shown in units of annually averaged gigawatts electrical <GWe>.

IPCC Projected Worldwide Annually Averaged Electrical Power Production <GWe>

2020 2050 2100
Solar 30 650 3720
Nuclear 400 1120 2230
Wind 150 930 2170
Biomass 40 540 1500
Hydro 410 640 850
Coal + Oil 920 860 770
Gas 780 980 620
Geothermal 30 84 100
Total 2770 5800 11900

This IPCC-based mean scenario relies heavily on solar and wind, which vary strongly on a daily and seasonal basis. By the time these intermittent energy sources become dominant, later in the century, we may well have developed the capability to mitigate their daily variation using energy storage. Seasonal variation, however, is hundreds of times harder to compensate, and it is difficult to imagine how this can be done effectively. As solar and wind grow in scale they will need to occupy sites with higher variability, and when they become a large fraction of the energy supply, later in the century, the costs associated with their variability will grow.

Continue reading “Why (nuclear) fusion?”

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Evidence mounts for Alzheimer’s, suicide risks among youth in polluted cities

sciencedaily.com

Date: April 13, 2018
Source: The University of Montana
Summary: Researchers have published a new study that reveals increased risks for Alzheimer’s and suicide among children and young adults living in polluted megacities.

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This is pollution haze over Mexico City.
Credit: Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas

A University of Montana researcher and her collaborators have published a new study that reveals increased risks for Alzheimer’s and suicide among children and young adults living in polluted megacities.

Dr. Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas said her group studied 203 autopsies of Mexico City residents ranging in age from 11 months to 40 years. Metropolitan Mexico City is home to 24 million people exposed daily to concentrations of fine particulate matter and ozone above U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. The researchers tracked two abnormal proteins that indicate development of Alzheimer’s, and they detected the early stages of the disease in babies less than a year old. Continue reading “Evidence mounts for Alzheimer’s, suicide risks among youth in polluted cities”

Vietnam Businesses, farmers struggle to develop tea brands

Vietnamplus.vn

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Vietnam is exporting tea mainly in the form of raw materials. In an effort to increase tea export value, both farmers and businesses in the northern province of Thai Nguyen, the country’s largest tea producer, are seeking to develop brand names for their products.

Mr Nguyen Duc Trong, owner of a tea workshop in Thai Nguyen province, has been working hard to promote his products. Trong’s goal is to develop a tea brand and seek outlets for products.

After many attempts, he realized that it was very hard for tea farmers to create brands for their products. Continue reading “Vietnam Businesses, farmers struggle to develop tea brands”

Học được điều gì từ những giáo viên dạy học sinh đặc biệt?

English: What I’ve Learned From Special Ed Teachers

Những giáo viên dạy học sinh đặc biệt (khuyết tật, chậm phát triển, rối loạn tâm lý…) có những thấu hiểu rất giá trị để chia sẻ với những đồng nghiệp của họ về nhẫn nại, cảm thông, cách làm việc với phụ huynh, và nhiều điều hơn nữa.

Những giáo viên dạy học sinh đặc biệt được mong đợi làm khá nhiều điều. đánh giá kĩ năng của học sinh, biết đâu là điều các em cần, sau đó mới xây dựng kế hoạch giảng dạy; tổ chức và đưa hoạt động phù hợp với khả năng của từng học sinh; dạy và chỉ dẫn học sinh theo lớp, nhóm, và từng em một; sau đó đề kế hoạch đào tạo cá nhân bằng ngôn ngữ dễ hiểu, thân thiện với cha mẹ. Continue reading “Học được điều gì từ những giáo viên dạy học sinh đặc biệt?”