Đây là ấn bản tiếng Việt thứ năm của tiểu luận Nguồn Gốc Đàn Tranh Việt Nam. Nếu ấn bản thứ nhất (1987), thứ hai (1990) và thứ ba (1996) đặt tiền đề và cơ sở lý luận về nguồn gốc đàn tranh Việt dựa trên các yếu tố ngôn ngữ học và thiết kế nhạc khí thì ấn bản thứ tư (2020) và ấn bản này cung cấp nhiều tư liệu lịch sử và khảo cổ để làm rõ và cũng cố những giả thuyết và kết luận được nêu ra trong ba ấn bản trước đây. Mong rằng tiểu luận này sẽ giúp bạn đọc mở ra một cái nhìn mới về lịch sử đàn tranh Việt và nhạc Việt.
Người viết xin chân thành cảm ơn Gsts. Nguyễn Thuyết Phong đã gửi tặng 2 tấm ảnh đàn tre goong trong bộ ảnh điền dã cuả Gs tại Việt Nam để minh họa cho phần viết về đàn tre trong tiểu luận này.
This year’s Trafficking in Persons Report sends a strong message to the world that global crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and enduring discriminatory policies and practices, have a disproportionate effect on individuals already oppressed by other injustices. These challenges further compound existing vulnerabilities to exploitation, including human trafficking. We must break this inhumane cycle of discrimination and injustices if we hope to one day eliminate human trafficking.
The U.S. Department of State strives to advance around the world the security, prosperity, and values that U.S. citizens share. We know recent events have led our country to grapple with unequal treatment and racism here at home that has reverberated around the world. As a government and society, we strive to correct past wrongs and advance racial equity in the United States and abroad. We commit to bringing this dedication to our efforts to fight human trafficking as well. We will seek to use our year-round engagement with governments, advocates, and the private sector to build a more effective anti-trafficking strategy rooted in equity. This must include coming to terms with our role in having perpetuated violence and dehumanized people, and we must work to right these past wrongs.
Systemic discrimination creates inequities between communities, whether the discrimination targets perceptions of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation and gender identity, or any other social identities. It manifests in societal exclusion and prejudices against those communities, which help perpetuate an imbalance of opportunity and support. These inequities undercut our goal of combating human trafficking and embolden traffickers. We have seen, for instance, how deeply held racial biases and stereotypes inappropriately influence outcomes for those in our criminal justice system as they lead to racially disparate assumptions about who is identified as a trafficker and who is identified as a victim. This is not a new truth, but it is a somber, unacceptable reality.
Through this report, we call on governments to join the United States in improving our collective efforts to comprehensively address human trafficking. Doing so requires us to mitigate harmful practices and policies that cause socioeconomic or political vulnerabilities that traffickers often prey on. Part of this work requires us to acknowledge we will never be able to understand the full scope of what is needed without the expertise of those affected by systemic inequality. Representation and diversity of experience and thought matter. Therefore governments, including the United States, must foster an inclusive environment that allows for a thriving, diverse workforce at all levels.
I have said before, building a “more perfect union” is both an acknowledgement of our imperfection and a commitment to continue striving toward progress in a transparent way. I believe that is true here. I look forward to the work ahead, knowing there is much still to accomplish, and we will be more successful when we work together to achieve the goals of combating human trafficking and creating a more fair, equitable world.
Sincerely, Antony Blinken
Message From the Acting Director
If there is one thing we have learned in the last year, it is that human trafficking does not stop during a pandemic. The concurrence of the increased number of individuals at risk, traffickers’ ability to capitalize on competing crises, and the diversion of resources to pandemic response efforts has resulted in an ideal environment for human trafficking to flourish and evolve. Yet, despite the added challenges and risks that the pandemic has presented, we have also witnessed the adaptability among those continuing to combat human trafficking and their dedication to ensuring the continuation of anti-trafficking efforts to minimize the effects of the pandemic on victims and the broader anti-trafficking community. This year, the TIP Report introduction examines the emerging trends, challenges, and adaptations to global anti-trafficking efforts as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
With this year’s Report we celebrate the efforts of anti-trafficking professionals who continued to serve and identify victims as well as prosecute traffickers amidst the pandemic’s devastating effects on the world’s most vulnerable populations. We salute the survivor leaders––those with lived experience of human trafficking––who have demonstrated resilience and reaffirm that employing trauma- and survivor-informed approaches is essential, crisis or not. While acknowledging these leaders, we recognize that many of us have also been touched by trauma, whether through loss of a loved one, our own illness, or dealing with large-scale lockdowns and extreme uncertainty. A trauma-informed approach is needed now more than ever. We must ensure that our commitment to victim-centered and trauma- and survivor-informed approaches when serving victims and survivors is uninterrupted. We must also extend this approach to our interactions with our colleagues throughout the anti-trafficking field.
While hopeful that we’re turning the corner on the pandemic, we know that different countries are at different stages in their pandemic response and recovery. We call on governments and anti-trafficking actors to draw inspiration from the innovation and leadership this Report highlights to continue and improve the response to combat trafficking even amidst the necessary recovery efforts. We should also consider the lessons learned over the course of this global health crisis. It is through collaboration and collective understanding of both the nuances of our profoundly changed world and the needs of those affected most by the compounding effects of both human trafficking and the COVID-19 pandemic that a path forward emerges.
Issues & Insights Vol. 21, SR 2 — Advancing a Rules-based Maritime Order in the Indo-Pacific
Authors of this volume participated in the Indo-Pacific Maritime Security Expert Working Group’s 2021 workshop that took place, virtually on March 23-24. The working group, composed of esteemed international security scholars and maritime experts from Japan, the United States, and other Indo-Pacific states, was formed to promote effective U.S.-Japan cooperation on maritime security issues in the region through rigorous research on various legal interpretations, national policies, and cooperative frameworks to understand what is driving regional maritime tensions and what can be done to reduce those tensions. The workshop’s goal is to help generate sound, pragmatic and actionable policy solutions for the United States, Japan, and the wider region, and to ensure that the rule of law and the spirit of cooperation prevail in maritime Indo- Pacific.
The Indo-Pacific Maritime Security Expert Working Group’s 2021 workshop and this volume were funded by a grant from the U.S. Embassy Tokyo, and implemented in collaboration with the Yokosuka Council on Asia Pacific Studies (YCAPS).
The statements made and views expressed are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of their respective organizations and affiliations. For questions, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Photo: The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76), center left, and the Japanese helicopter destroyer JS Hyuga (DDH 181), center right, sail in formation with other ships from the U.S. Navy and Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) as aircraft from the U.S. Air Force and Japan Air Self-Defense Force fly overhead in formation during Keen Sword 2019 in the Philippine Sea. Keen Sword 2019 is a joint, bilateral field-training exercise involving U.S. military and JMSDF personnel, designed to increase combat readiness and interoperability of the U.S.-Japan alliance. Source: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Kaila V. Peters/Public domain.
Đại tá Thomas M.Stevenson, Tùy viên Quốc phòng Hoa Kỳ tại Việt Nam:
QĐND – Nhân chuyến thăm chính thức Việt Nam từ ngày 28 đến 29-7 của Bộ trưởng Quốc phòng Hoa Kỳ Lloyd Austin, phóng viên Báo Quân đội nhân dân có cuộc phỏng vấn Đại tá Thomas M. Stevenson, Tùy viên Quốc phòng Hoa Kỳ về kết quả hợp tác giữa hai nước cũng như cơ hội tăng cường hợp tác trong tương lai.
Đại tá Thomas M.Stevenson.
Phóng viên (PV):Ông cho biết những kết quả nổi bật trong hợp tác quốc phòng giữa Việt Nam và Hoa Kỳ những năm gần đây?
WASHINGTON – The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) today released its annual Special 301 Report on the adequacy and effectiveness of U.S. trading partners’ protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights.
“Intellectual property rights incentivize our creators, manufacturers, and innovators to invent new products and technologies,” said Ambassador Katherine Tai. “The laws, policies and practices that protect those rights must appropriately balance the interests of creators with those seeking to use their creations. Failing to adequately and effectively protect those rights in foreign markets hurts the U.S. economy, the dynamism of American innovators and the livelihoods of our workers.”
This annual report details USTR’s findings of more than 100 trading partners after significant research and enhanced engagement with stakeholders. Significant elements of the 2021 Special 301 Report include:
• The 2021 Special 301 review period has taken place during the COVID-19 pandemic, the largest global health crisis in more than a century. The top priority of the United States is saving lives and ending the pandemic in the United States and around the world. As affirmed in the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, the United States, while recognizing the role of intellectual property (IP) protection in the development of new medicines, respects a trading partner’s right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.
• The United States has been closely monitoring China’s progress in implementing its commitments under the United States-China Economic and Trade Agreement (Phase One Agreement). In 2020, China published several draft IP-related legal and regulatory measures and finalized over a dozen measures. Notably, China amended the Patent Law, Copyright Law, and Criminal Law in the past year. However, these steps toward reform require effective implementation and fall short of the full range of fundamental changes needed to improve the IP landscape in China.
• Border, criminal, and online enforcement against counterfeiting remains a global concern. This past year, countries reported significant quantities of COVID-19 testing kits, personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N-95 and equivalent masks, and sanitizers, detergents, and disinfectants from China that were determined to be counterfeit. Widespread counterfeiting in China’s e-commerce markets, the largest in the world, has also been exacerbated by the migration of infringing sales from physical to online markets, which accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic.
• Concerns with the European Union’s aggressive promotion of its exclusionary geographical indications policies persist. The United States continues its intensive engagement in promoting and protecting access to foreign markets for U.S. exporters of products that are identified by common names or otherwise marketed under previously registered trademarks.
The report also highlights progress made by our trading partners to resolve and address IPR issues of concern to the United States:
• The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is removed from the Watch List this year due to the Ministry of Health and Prevention resolving concerns with IP protection of pharmaceutical products. The UAE also made progress on longstanding IP enforcement concerns, particularly through increased efforts by Dubai Customs, publication of IP enforcement procedures by multiple enforcement authorities, publication of annual IP enforcement statistics by Federal Customs, and efforts by the Ajman Department of Economic Development to significantly reduce the availability in counterfeit goods at the Ajman China Mall, a notorious market for the past several years.
• Algeria moves from the Priority Watch List to the Watch List due to steps the government has taken to engage and cooperate with stakeholders, improve enforcement efforts, and reduce IP-related market access barriers.
• Brazil’s law enforcement, with support from the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) International Computer Hacking and Intellectual Property (ICHIP) Advisor for Latin America & the Caribbean and Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS), the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Virginia, Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), as well as United Kingdom (UK) counterparts, launched “Operation 404.2,” which seized the domain names of multiple commercial websites engaged in the illegal reproduction and distribution of copyrighted works.
• In the most significant criminal case under Taiwan’s recently amended Trade Secrets Act, a court ruled that a Taiwan semiconductor company and three former employees were guilty of stealing trade secrets from a U.S. company to enable the development of semiconductor chips by a Chinese state-owned enterprise. The court imposed a $3.4 million fine on the Taiwan company and sentenced the former employees to 5-6 years in prison. The case involved substantial cooperation with U.S. investigators and prosecutors.
• Ukraine continued to take positive steps in 2020 toward a transparent, fair, and predictable system for the collective management of copyright royalties. In particular, pursuant to 2018 legislation that fundamentally reformed its collective management organization (CMO) system, Ukraine held open competitions and made progress toward completing accreditation of two additional CMOs in 2020. This follows the accreditation in 2019 of six other CMOs under the 2018 law. Some of the accredited CMOs have completed royalty negotiations and are paying royalties to right holders. For other CMOs selected under the 2018 law, accreditation and royalty negotiation progress continues.
The “Special 301” Report is an annual review of the global state of IP protection and enforcement. USTR conducts this review pursuant to Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act.
USTR reviewed more than one hundred (100) trading partners for this year’s Special 301 Report, and placed thirty-two (32) of them on the Priority Watch List or Watch List.
In this year’s Report, trading partners on the Priority Watch List present the most significant concerns this year regarding insufficient IP protection or enforcement or actions that otherwise limited market access for persons relying on intellectual property protection. Nine countries — Argentina, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, and Venezuela — are on the Priority Watch List. These countries will be the subject of particularly intense bilateral engagement during the coming year.
Twenty-three trading partners are on the Watch List, and merit bilateral attention to address underlying IP problems: Algeria, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mexico, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.
USTR continued its enhanced approach to public engagement activities in this year’s Special 301 process. USTR requested written submissions from the public through a notice published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2020 (Federal Register notice). In addition, due to COVID-19, USTR fostered public participation via written submissions rather than an in-person hearing with the interagency Special 301 Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) sending written questions about issues relevant to the review to those that submitted written comments, including to representatives of foreign governments, industry, and non-governmental organizations. USTR posted the written questions and the written responses online at >www.regulations.gov<, docket number USTR-2020-0041.
The Federal Register notice drew submissions from 50 non-government stakeholders and 22 foreign governments. The submissions filed in response to the Federal Register notice are available to the public online at http://www.regulations.gov , docket number USTR-2020-0041.
Nguyen Tuan Anh, security expert of Viettel Cyber Security, surpassed more than 25,000 “white hat hackers” in the world to top the June 2021 rankings of Bugcrowd, the world’s largest security vulnerability search platform.
Tuan Anh found 55 security holes on Oracle’s E-Business Suite product, a widely used software suite in the corporate environment, including a serious vulnerability could allow hackers to take control of the software remotely.
Previously, Nguyen Tuan Anh also topped Bugcrowd’s ranking in April 2021. With nearly 200 discovered security holes, Tuan Anh has received the title “Most Valuable Professional” (MVP) of Bugcrowd for 4 times.
In 2020, he found 55 security holes on Oracle’s E-Business Suite product, a widely used software suite in the corporate environment, including a serious vulnerability could allow hackers to take control of the software remotely. E-Business Suite is a popular product used by large enterprises and organizations in the world (with 20% of enterprises in the Top 500 fortune globally using it).
Tại Singapore, ông Lloyd Austin đã phát biểu trong một sự kiện do Viện Nghiên cứu chiến lược quốc tế (IISS) tổ chức. Chuyến thăm của lãnh đạo Lầu Năm Góc thể hiện rằng, chính quyền Biden-Harris coi Đông Nam Á như một phần quan trọng của khu vực Ấn Độ Dương – Thái Bình Dương.
Chiều qua, chuyên cơ chở phái đoàn của Bộ trưởng Quốc phòng Mỹ đã hạ cánh xuống Hà Nội, bắt đầu chuyến thăm chính thức Việt Nam trong hai ngày.
Trung tướng Lương Tam Quang, Thứ trưởng Bộ Công an phát biểu nhấn mạnh như vậy tại buổi tiếp ngài Christopher Klein, Đại biện Hoa Kỳ tại Việt Nam, diễn ra chiều 26/7, tại Hà Nội.
Phát biểu tại buổi tiếp, Thứ trưởng Lương Tam Quang cảm ơn Đại biện Christopher Klein và Đại sứ quán Hoa Kỳ tại Việt Nam trong thời gian qua đã có nhiều đóng góp thiết thực, thúc đẩy quan hệ Đối tác toàn diện Việt Nam Hoa Kỳ, cũng như quan hệ hợp tác giữa Bộ Công an Việt Nam và các cơ quan đối tác Hoa Kỳ phát triển tốt đẹp, đi vào chiều sâu, hiệu quả, thiết thực.
Thứ trưởng Lương Tam Quang phát biểu tại buổi tiếp.
Người dân Việt Nam đeo khẩu trang, tấm chắn giọt bắn trong khi xếp hàng chờ tới lượt xét nghiệm Covid-19. Ảnh: Tuấn Mark
Trong cuộc khánh chiến đầu tiên chống quân Nguyên Mông xâm lược, người Việt đã thực hiện chiến lược “vườn không nhà trống”, người dân rời khỏi thành phố và làng mạc, không để lại lương thực cho kẻ địch.
Tôi đến Việt Nam vào tháng 6 năm 2013, và trong 3 năm đầu tiên sống ở đây, tôi hầu như chỉ giao tiếp với những người nước ngoài khác. Trong thời gian đó, tôi được nghe nhiều thông tin sai lệch. Không may, có những người phương Tây đến Việt Nam để hưởng thụ mức sống rẻ, cảnh quan xinh đẹp, và những con người thân thiện, hiếu khách, nhưng họ lại hay ca thán và đưa ra các phép so sánh “ngốc nghếch” giữa Việt Nam với đất nước của họ.
Joseph V. Micallef is a best-selling military history and world affairs author, and keynote speaker. Follow him on Twitter @JosephVMicallef.
At first glance, the South and East China Seas, or China Seas, and the Caribbean Sea seem to have little in common.Advertisement
Situated on opposite ends of the Earth, they are what geographers describe as enclosed seas. To a naval strategist, that’s shorthand for an environment replete with numerous choke points from which maritime traffic can be interdicted.
Beyond this geostrategic similarity, however, these seas have another common element: the parallels and contrasts with how each region has handled the emergence of new military powers.
China in East Asia
For much of its history, China has been the predominant military power in East Asia. Historically, it was the largest country, had the largest population and the largest economy. All those factors are typically prerequisites for national power — a fact as true today as it was a millennium ago. The exceptions were periods when China was internally divided, beset by weak governments unable to assert their authority, or dominated by foreign powers.Advertisement
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Ông Bùi Thanh Liêm, Phó Tổng Biên tập Báo Người Lao Động (trái), trao quà từ chương trình “Thực phẩm miễn phí cùng cả nước chống dịch” cho đại diện Ủy ban MTTQ phường 15, quận Gò Vấp, TP HCMẢnh: QUỐC THẮNG
Trong ngày 11-7, lan truyền clip có số đông công nhân tại một nhà máy ở tỉnh Bình Dương đu lắc cổng để ra ngoài. Chưa biết thực hư, chưa rõ nguyên nhân nhưng clip này vô tình tạo tâm lý hoang mang cho người xem.