How to Read Xi’s Muscular Message on China’s Global Role

Xi Jinping used the annual legislative session to lock in his tenure as president and reinforce China’s assertive foreign policy and the reemergence of its economy.

Article by Ian Johnson

March 17, 2023 4:05 pm (EST)

Chinese President Xi Jinping prepares to take his oath during the Third Plenary Session of the National People’s Congress.
Chinese President Xi Jinping prepares to take his oath during the Third Plenary Session of the National People’s Congress. Mark R. Cristino/Reuters

This month saw the Chinese rite of spring known as the lianghui, or “two sessions”: the annual meetings of the national advisory committee and the country’s parliament. Neither body holds much power, and it’s easy to write the whole exercise off as empty theater. Yet, public rituals are meant to deliver messages, and this year’s lianghui offered two important points: President Xi Jinping and his muscular foreign policy are here to stay, and China is back open for business after three years of fighting COVID-19—even if its return to growth is bolstered through unsustainable deficit spending.

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A federal judge spoke at Stanford Law School. Chaos ensued.

March 24, 2023, The New York Times, Good Morning
By David Leonhardt
Stanford University.Ben Margot/Associated Press
A heckler’s veto
Stuart Kyle Duncan — a federal appeals court judge appointed by Donald Trump — visited Stanford Law School this month to give a talk. It didn’t go well.
Students frequently interrupted him with heckling. One protester called for his daughters to be raped, Duncan said. When he asked Stanford administrators to calm the crowd, the associate dean for diversity, equity and inclusion walked to the lectern and instead began her remarks by criticizing him. “For many people here, your work has caused harm,” she told him.
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TikTok CEO in the hot seat: 5 takeaways from his first appearance before US Congress

Catherine Thorbecke

By Catherine Thorbecke, CNN

Updated 5:12 PM EDT, Thu March 23, 2023

03:15New YorkCNN — 

In his first appearance before Congress on Thursday, TikTok CEO Shou Chew was grilled by lawmakers who expressed deep skepticism about his company’s attempts to protect US user data and ease concerns about its ties to China.

It was a rare chance for the public to hear from the Chew, who offers very few interviews. Yet his company’s app is among the most popular in America, with more than 150 million active users.

Here are the biggest takeaways from Thursday’s hearing.

Washington has already made up its mind about TikTok

The hearing, which lasted for more than five hours, kicked off with calls from a lawmaker to ban the app in the United States and remained combative throughout. It offered a vivid display of the bipartisan push to crack down on the popular short-form video app and the company’s uphill battle to improve relations with Washington.

Washington Republican Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers, the chair of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, opened Thursday’s hearing by telling Shou: “Your platform should be banned.”

23 TikTok STOCK

The US government is once again threatening to ban TikTok. What you should know

Chew used his testimony to stress TikTok’s independence from China and play up its US ties. “TikTok itself is not available in mainland China, we’re headquartered in Los Angeles and Singapore, and we have 7,000 employees in the U.S. today,” he said in his opening remarks.

“Still, we have heard important concerns about the potential for unwanted foreign access to US data and potential manipulation of the TikTok US ecosystem,” Chew said. “Our approach has never been to dismiss or trivialize any of these concerns. We have addressed them with real action.”

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Summit for Democracy Snubs for Two Troublesome U.S. Allies

Foreign Policy Sitrep

The Biden administration is inviting around 120 countries to join its Summit for Democracy next week, but two of its NATO allies aren’t getting a call.

Turkey and Hungary have been left off the invitation list for the major summit, which Team Biden bills as one of its hallmark foreign-policy initiatives, meant to shore up democracies worldwide and stanch the rise of autocracies.

Backsliding. The spurning of two NATO allies, confirmed by three U.S. officials who spoke to SitRep, reflects a mounting concern with the degree of democratic backsliding in Turkey and Hungary, even though Washington is relying on both to support the West’s strategy against Russia as the war in Ukraine rages on—and needs both to approve Finland and Sweden’s bids to join NATO as full-fledged allies.

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Xi and Putin Have the Most Consequential Undeclared Alliance in the World

It’s become more important than Washington’s official alliances today.

By Graham Allison, a professor of government at the Harvard Kennedy School.

MARCH 23, 2023, 5:42 PM

Chinese President Xi Jinping’s decision to visit Moscow this week in his first trip abroad since his reelection comes as no surprise to those who have been watching carefully. When one steps back and analyzes the relationship between China and Russia, the brute facts cannot be denied: Along every dimension—personal, economic, military, and diplomatic—the undeclared alliance that Xi has built with Russian President Vladimir Putin has become much more consequential than most of the United States’ official alliances today.

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AR6 Synthesis Report: Climate Change 2023

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.

Summary for Policy Makers >>

Longer Report >>

More information >>

Headline Statements

Headline statements are the overarching conclusions of the approved Summary for Policymakers which, taken together, provide a concise narrative.

ACurrent Status and Trends
Observed Warming and its Causes
A.1Human activities, principally through emissions of greenhouse gases, have unequivocally caused global warming, with global surface temperature reaching 1.1°C above 1850–1900 in 2011–2020. Global greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase, with unequal historical and ongoing contributions arising from unsustainable energy use, land use and land-use change, lifestyles and patterns of consumption and production across regions, between and within countries, and among individuals (high confidence). {2.1, Figure 2.1, Figure 2.2}.
Observed Changes and Impacts
A.2Widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and biosphere have occurred. Human-caused climate change is already affecting many weather and climate extremes in every region across the globe. This has led to widespread adverse impacts and related losses and damages to nature and people (high confidence). Vulnerable communities who have historically contributed the least to current climate change are disproportionately affected (high confidence). {2.1, Table 2.1, Figure 2.2 and 2.3} (Figure SPM.1)
Current Progress in Adaptation and Gaps and Challenges
A.3Adaptation planning and implementation has progressed across all sectors and regions, with documented benefits and varying effectiveness. Despite progress, adaptation gaps exist, and will continue to grow at current rates of implementation. Hard and soft limits to adaptation have been reached in some ecosystems and regions. Maladaptation is happening in some sectors and regions. Current global financial flows for adaptation are insufficient for, and constrain implementation of, adaptation options, especially in developing countries (high confidence). {2.2, 2.3}
Current Mitigation Progress, Gaps and Challenges
A.4Policies and laws addressing mitigation have consistently expanded since AR5. Global GHG emissions in 2030 implied by nationally determined contributions (NDCs) announced by October 2021 make it likely that warming will exceed 1.5°C during the 21st century and make it harder to limit warming below 2°C. There are gaps between projected emissions from implemented policies and those from NDCs and finance flows fall short of the levels needed to meet climate goals across all sectors and regions. (high confidence) {2.2, 2.3, Figure 2.5, Table 2.2}
BFuture Climate Change, Risks, and Long-Term Responses
Future Climate Change
B.1Continued greenhouse gas emissions will lead to increasing global warming, with the best estimate of reaching 1.5°C in the near term in considered scenarios and modelled pathways. Every increment of global warming will intensify multiple and concurrent hazards (high confidence). Deep, rapid, and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions would lead to a discernible slowdown in global warming within around two decades, and also to discernible changes in atmospheric composition within a few years (high confidence). {Cross-Section Boxes 1 and 2, 3.1, 3.3, Table 3.1, Figure 3.1, 4.3} (Figure SPM.2, Box SPM.1)
Climate Change Impacts and Climate-Related Risks
B.2For any given future warming level, many climate-related risks are higher than assessed in AR5, and projected long-term impacts are up to multiple times higher than currently observed (high confidence). Risks and projected adverse impacts and related losses and damages from climate change escalate with every increment of global warming (very high confidence). Climatic and non-climatic risks will increasingly interact, creating compound and cascading risks that are more complex and difficult to manage (high confidence). {Cross-Section Box.2, 3.1, 4.3, Figure 3.3, Figure 4.3} (Figure SPM.3, Figure SPM.4)
Likelihood and Risks of Unavoidable, Irreversible or Abrupt Changes
B.3Some future changes are unavoidable and/or irreversible but can be limited by deep, rapid and sustained global greenhouse gas emissions reduction. The likelihood of abrupt and/or irreversible changes increases with higher global warming levels. Similarly, the probability of low-likelihood outcomes associated with potentially very large adverse impacts increases with higher global warming levels. (high confidence) {3.1}
Adaptation Options and their Limits in a Warmer World
B.4Adaptation options that are feasible and effective today will become constrained and less effective with increasing global warming. With increasing global warming, losses and damages will increase and additional human and natural systems will reach adaptation limits. Maladaptation can be avoided by flexible, multi-sectoral, inclusive, long-term planning and implementation of adaptation actions, with co-benefits to many sectors and systems. (high confidence) {3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3}
Carbon Budgets and Net Zero Emissions
B.5Limiting human-caused global warming requires net zero CO2 emissions. Cumulative carbon emissions until the time of reaching net-zero CO2 emissions and the level of greenhouse gas emission reductions this decade largely determine whether warming can be limited to 1.5°C or 2°C (high confidence). Projected CO2 emissions from existing fossil fuel infrastructure without additional abatement would exceed the remaining carbon budget for 1.5°C (50%) (high confidence). {2.3, 3.1, 3.3, Table 3.1}
Mitigation Pathways
B.6All global modelled pathways that limit warming to 1.5°C (>50%) with no or limited overshoot, and those that limit warming to 2°C (>67%), involve rapid and deep and, in most cases, immediate greenhouse gas emissions reductions in all sectors this decade. Global net zero CO2 emissions are reached for these pathway categories, in the early 2050s and around the early 2070s, respectively. (high confidence) {3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.5, Table 3.1} (Figure SPM.5, Box SPM.1)
Overshoot: Exceeding a Warming Level and Returning
B.7If warming exceeds a specified level such as 1.5°C, it could gradually be reduced again by achieving and sustaining net negative global CO2 emissions. This would require additional deployment of carbon dioxide removal, compared to pathways without overshoot, leading to greater feasibility and sustainability concerns. Overshoot entails adverse impacts, some irreversible, and additional risks for human and natural systems, all growing with the magnitude and duration of overshoot. (high confidence) {3.1, 3.3, 3.4, Table 3.1, Figure 3.6}
CResponses in the Near Term
Urgency of Near-Term Integrated Climate Action
C.1Climate change is a threat to human well-being and planetary health (very high confidence). There is a rapidly closing window of opportunity to secure a liveable and sustainable future for all (very high confidence). Climate resilient development integrates adaptation and mitigation to advance sustainable development for all, and is enabled by increased international cooperation including improved access to adequate financial resources, particularly for vulnerable regions, sectors and groups, and inclusive governance and coordinated policies (high confidence). The choices and actions implemented in this decade will have impacts now and for thousands of years (high confidence). {3.1, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, Figure 3.1, Figure 3.3, Figure 4.2} (Figure SPM.1; Figure SPM.6)
The Benefits of Near-Term Action
C.2Deep, rapid and sustained mitigation and accelerated implementation of adaptation actions in this decade would reduce projected losses and damages for humans and ecosystems (very high confidence), and deliver many co-benefits, especially for air quality and health (high confidence). Delayed mitigation and adaptation action would lock-in high-emissions infrastructure, raise risks of stranded assets and cost-escalation, reduce feasibility, and increase losses and damages (high confidence). Near-term actions involve high up-front investments and potentially disruptive changes that can be lessened by a range of enabling policies (high confidence). {2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8}
Mitigation and Adaptation Options across Systems
C.3Rapid and far-reaching transitions across all sectors and systems are necessary to achieve deep and sustained emissions reductions and secure a liveable and sustainable future for all. These system transitions involve a significant upscaling of a wide portfolio of mitigation and adaptation options. Feasible, effective, and low-cost options for mitigation and adaptation are already available, with differences across systems and regions. (high confidence) {4.1, 4.5, 4.6} (Figure SPM.7)
Synergies and Trade-Offs with Sustainable Development
C.4Accelerated and equitable action in mitigating and adapting to climate change impacts is critical to sustainable development. Mitigation and adaptation actions have more synergies than trade-offs with Sustainable Development Goals. Synergies and trade-offs depend on context and scale of implementation. (high confidence) {3.4, 4.2, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.9, Figure 4.5}
Equity and Inclusion
C.5Prioritising equity, climate justice, social justice, inclusion and just transition processes can enable adaptation and ambitious mitigation actions and climate resilient development. Adaptation outcomes are enhanced by increased support to regions and people with the highest vulnerability to climatic hazards. Integrating climate adaptation into social protection programs improves resilience. Many options are available for reducing emission-intensive consumption, including through behavioural and lifestyle changes, with co-benefits for societal well-being. (high confidence) {4.4, 4.5}
Governance and Policies
C.6Effective climate action is enabled by political commitment, well-aligned multilevel governance, institutional frameworks, laws, policies and strategies and enhanced access to finance and technology. Clear goals, coordination across multiple policy domains, and inclusive governance processes facilitate effective climate action. Regulatory and economic instruments can support deep emissions reductions and climate resilience if scaled up and applied widely. Climate resilient development benefits from drawing on diverse knowledge. (high confidence) {2.2, 4.4, 4.5, 4.7}
Finance, Technology and International Cooperation
C.7Finance, technology and international cooperation are critical enablers for accelerated climate action. If climate goals are to be achieved, both adaptation and mitigation financing would need to increase many-fold. There is sufficient global capital to close the global investment gaps but there are barriers to redirect capital to climate action. Enhancing technology innovation systems is key to accelerate the widespread adoption of technologies and practices. Enhancing international cooperation is possible through multiple channels. (high confidence) {2.3, 4.8}

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) & US Diplomatic Relations Act (1978) – Vienna Comvention on Consular Relations (1963)

  • Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961)

Download from UN Website >>

  • [US] Diplomatic Relations Act (1978), to implement Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Convention

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  • Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963)

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  • Diplomatic and Consular Immunity: Guidance for Law Enforcementand Judicial Authorities (by ÚS Department of State, Office of Foreign Misions)

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A translation problem – Americans use Fahrenheit, but many climate reports exclusively use Celsius.

March 21, 2023
By German Lopez, The Morning, New York Times
A thermometer reading in Death Valley National Park.Roger Kisby for The New York Times
Clear communication
The world’s top scientists released their latest report yesterday warning that the Earth is on pace for severe damage from climate change. But many Americans might have a hard time understanding the report because the analysis, like those before it, talks about temperatures exclusively in Celsius.
The U.S. is among just a few countries that still use Fahrenheit temperatures. And while Americans are a relatively small audience on a global scale, they are an important one for climate science: The U.S. has historically emitted more planet-warming greenhouse gases than any other country. Improving Americans’ understanding of the issue could be crucial to any push for changes.
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2023 World Happiness Report

World Happiness Report 2023

It has been over ten years since the first World Happiness Report was published. And it is exactly ten years since the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 66/281, proclaiming 20 March to be observed annually as International Day of Happiness. Since then, more and more people have come to believe that our success as countries should be judged by the happiness of our people. There is also a growing consensus about how happiness should be measured. This consensus means that national happiness can now become an operational objective for governments.

Read the Report


2022 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices


 MARCH 20, 2023

The annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – the Human Rights Report – cover internationally recognized individual, civil, political, and worker rights, as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international agreements. The U.S. Department of State submits reports on all countries receiving assistance and all United Nations member states to the U.S. Congress in accordance with the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and the Trade Act of 1974.



For nearly 50 years, the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices have served as a vital resource for governments, researchers, advocacy groups, journalists, and voices of conscience worldwide that work to promote respect for human rights and accountability for injustice.  The individual reports cover 198 countries and territories, providing factual, objective information based on credible reports of the events that occurred throughout 2022.  These reports are meticulously compiled by U.S. Department of State employees in Washington, D.C., and at our overseas missions throughout the world, who collectively spend thousands of hours preparing the reports using credible information from U.S. embassies and consulates abroad, foreign government officials, nongovernmental and international organizations, jurists and legal experts, journalists, academics, human rights defenders, labor activists, and published reports.  We take seriously our responsibility to ensure their accuracy.

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The Judges’ Book

The Judges’ Book features excerpted scholarship from UC Hastings Faculty geared specifically towards judges, judicial business, and issues likely to come before American courts for resolution.

Volume 1 (2017)


Table of Contents


David Faigman


Marsha S. Berzon


Administrative Law: Historical Origins of America’s Administrative Exceptionalism
Reuel Schiller


Administrative Law: The Importance of Regional Administration to Federalism
Dave Owen


Bankruptcy: Activist Investors and Chapter 11
Jared A. Ellias


Civil Procedure: Certifying an Opt-In Class under Rule 23
Scott Dodson


Civil Procedure: How to Apply Diversity Jurisdiction in a Multiparty Case
Scott Dodson


Civil Procedure: Class Action Fee and Cost Awards
Morris Ratner


Criminal Law: Clarifying “Wrongfulness” in Insanity Cases
Kate E. Bloch and Jeffrey Gould


Evidence: Admissibility vs. Weight in Scientific Testimony
David Faigman


Federal Law Enforcement: Law Enforcement as Political Question
Zachary S. Price


Patent Law: Finding Space for State Authority to Regulate Patents
Robin Feldman


Patent Law: How Big Pharma Delays Generic Entry
Robin Feldman


Federal Tax Law: The Costs of Cliff Effects in the Internal Revenue Code
Manoj Viswanathan


Appendix: Notable Faculty Publications 2016

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How war crimes prosecutions work

Zachary B. Wolf

Analysis by Zachary B. Wolf, CNN

Published 2:42 PM EDT, Fri March 17, 2023

After more than a year of international outrage at Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and shocking atrocities, there’s an arrest warrant out for Russian President Vladimir Putin.

The International Criminal Court on Friday announced charges against Putin and Russian official Maria Lvova-Belova relating to an alleged scheme to forcibly deport thousands of Ukrainian children to Russia.

Read CNN’s full report about the charges and the arrest warrant.

And read about the scheme involving Ukrainian children taken to Russia.

Russia rejected the allegations Friday, and a ministry of foreign affairs spokeswoman said the court has “no meaning” in Russia.

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The ICC issued arrest warrants on Friday for Putin and Russian official Maria Lvova-Belov

Russia scoffs but Putin could stand trial for alleged war crimes, ICC chief prosecutor says

By Caitlin Hu, CNN

Updated 9:03 PM EDT, Fri March 17, 2023

Karim Khan ICC vpx

ICC chief prosecutor reacts to Putin arrest warrant

The International Criminal Court’s chief prosecutor believes Russian President Vladimir Putin could stand trial for alleged crimes committed during Russia’s war in Ukraine, he told CNN on Friday, despite Moscow’s arguments that it is not subject to the court’s decisions.

In an interview with CNN’s Clarissa Ward, Chief Prosecutor Karim Khan pointed to historic trials of Nazi war criminals, former Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milošević, and former Liberian leader Charles Taylor, among others.

“All of them were mighty, powerful individuals and yet they found themselves in courtrooms,” he said.

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European Parliament resolution of 16 March 2023 on Cambodia: the case of opposition leader Kem Sokha

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The European Parliament,

– having regard to its previous resolutions on Cambodia,
– having regard to Rules 144(5) and 132(4) of its Rules of Procedure,

A. whereas on 3 March 2023, following a trial deemed by UN experts to have ‘failed to meet the standard of either Cambodian or international human rights law’, Phnom Penh Municipal Court sentenced Kem Sokha to 27 years in jail, which he is temporarily allowed to serve under house arrest, and indefinitely suspended his political rights to vote and to stand for election; Tiếp tục đọc “European Parliament resolution of 16 March 2023 on Cambodia: the case of opposition leader Kem Sokha”