Re-education in Unliberated Vietnam: Loneliness, Suffering and Death

Re-education in Unliberated Vietnam: Loneliness, Suffering and Death – by Ginetta Sagan and Stephen Denney [1982]

Note: The following article was published in The Indochina Newsletter, a newsletter I edited at the time, October-November 1982. Much has changed in the 16 years since this article was written. So far as is known all of the former South Vietnam government officials and officers have been released from the re-education camps and many have been allowed to emigrate to the U.S. under a special program, called Humanitarian Operation. But many of former prisoners have experienced various problems resulting from their long term incarceration under difficult conditions. I hope this article might be of historical interest in understanding what these prisoners have experienced; and also in understanding conditions of imprisonment endured by those dissidents and others still detained in Vietnam. – Steve Denney [1998]

October-November 1982

Re-education in Unliberated Vietnam: Loneliness, Suffering and Death

by Ginetta Sagan and Stephen Denney

(Editor’s Note: The following article is part of a preliminary draft of a report that will be issued later this year on human rights in Vietnam. The report is prepared for the Aurora Foundation, of which Ginetta Sagan is the Executive Director. Mrs. Sagan is a well-known human rights activist who interviewed over 200 former prisoners from Vietnam in preparation for this report. Details of the interviews will be brought out in fuller detail when the report is issued.)

Ten years ago, demonstrations were held around the world to protest political repression and imprisonment in South Vietnam. Seven years ago, Communist forces completed their conquest of South Vietnam. In June of 1975, the new regime ordered hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese to report to authorities for « re-education ». Many are still held in the camps today, but the world is mostly silent on their plight.

« Re-education » means different things to different people. To the Hanoi regime and its more vocal defenders abroad, re-education is seen as a very positive way to integrate the former enemy into the new society. It is, according to Communist leaders of Vietnam, an act of mercy, since those in the camps deserve the death penalty or life imprisonment.(1). The former prisoners, on the other hand, see re-education from quite a different perspective. Tiếp tục đọc “Re-education in Unliberated Vietnam: Loneliness, Suffering and Death”

Five lessons in infrastructure pricing from East Asia and Pacific

Photo: © Dini Sari Djalal/World Bank

In the infrastructure domain, “price” is a prism with many façades.

An infrastructure economist sees price in graphic terms: the coordinates of a point where demand and supply curves intersect.

For governments, price relates to budget lines, as part of public spending to develop infrastructure networks.

Utility managers view price as a decision: the amount to charge for each unit of service in order to recover the costs of production and (possibly) earn a profit.

But for most people, price comes with simple question: how much is the tariff I have to pay for the service, and can I afford it? Tiếp tục đọc “Five lessons in infrastructure pricing from East Asia and Pacific”

Hồ Sơ Mật Dinh Độc Lập – Nguyễn Tiến Hưng (audio book)

Nguyễn Tiến Hưng (sinh 1935) là một tiến sĩ kinh tế, nguyên là Tổng trưởng Kế hoạch của Chính phủ Việt Nam Cộng hòa kiêm cố vấn của tổng thống Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, hiện là giáo sư về hưu của Đại học Howard (Washington, D.C., Hoa Kỳ).







The 1968 “Hue Massacre”

by D. Gareth Porter
“Indochina Chronicle,” #33, June 24, 1974

Six years after the stunning communist Tet Offensive of 1968, one of the enduring myths of the Second Indochina War remains essentially unchallenged: the communist “massacre” at Hue. The official version of what happened in Hue has been that the National Liberation Front (NLF) and the North Vietnamese deliberately and systematically murdered not only responsible officials but religious figures, the educated elite and ordinary people, and that burial sites later found yielded some 3,000 bodies, the largest portion of the total of more than 4,700 victims of communist execution.

Although there is still much that is not known about what happened in Hue, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that the story conveyed to the American public by the South Vietnamese and American propaganda agencies bore little resemblance to the truth, but was, on the contrary, the result of a political warfare campaign by the Saigon government, embellished by the U.S. government and accepted uncritically by the U.S. press. A careful study of the official story of the Hue “massacre” on the one hand, and of the evidence from independent or anti-communist sources on the other, provides a revealing glimpse into efforts by the U.S. press to keep alive fears of a massive “bloodbath.”1 It is a myth which has served the U.S. administration interests well in the past, and continues to influence public attitudes deeply today. Tiếp tục đọc “The 1968 “Hue Massacre””