What Big Oil knew about climate change, in its own words


Four years ago, I traveled around America, visiting historical archives. I was looking for documents that might reveal the hidden history of climate change – and in particular, when the major coal, oil and gas companies became aware of the problem, and what they knew about it.

I pored over boxes of papers, thousands of pages. I began to recognize typewriter fonts from the 1960s and ‘70s and marveled at the legibility of past penmanship, and got used to squinting when it wasn’t so clear.

What those papers revealed is now changing our understanding of how climate change became a crisis. The industry’s own words, as my research found, show companies knew about the risk long before most of the rest of the world.

Surprising discoveries

At an old gunpowder factory in Delaware – now a museum and archive – I found a transcript of a petroleum conference from 1959 called the “Energy and Man” symposium, held at Columbia University in New York. As I flipped through, I saw a speech from a famous scientist, Edward Teller (who helped invent the hydrogen bomb), warning the industry executives and others assembled of global warming.

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Around the Halls: Assessing the 2022 National Security Strategy

Brookings Institute

Shadi HamidDaniel S. HamiltonRyan HassBruce JonesPatricia M. KimSuzanne MaloneyAmy J. NelsonMichael E. O’HanlonNatan SachsBruce RiedelMelanie W. SissonMireya SolísConstanze Stelzenmüller, and Andrew Yeo Friday, October 14, 2022


On October 12, 2022, U.S. President Joe Biden’s administration released the 2022 National Security Strategy (NSS). Brookings experts reflect on the document and what it reveals about the United States’ security trajectory.

SHADI HAMID (@shadihamid)
Senior Fellow, Center for Middle East Policy

In the past, I have been critical of the administration’s tendency to instrumentalize democracy by suggesting that its strength and value hinges on its ability to produce “good” outcomes. As I argue in “The Problem of Democracy“, this way of thinking about the democratic idea can easily lead to incoherence. Policymakers have little choice but to be incoherent, some of the time; the world is complicated. Still, identifying these tensions is worthwhile, in anticipation of when they might cause problems for U.S. foreign policy. In this case, they almost certainly will, because they already have.

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The Massive Gas Field That Europe Can’t Use

Earthquake risks in the Netherlands have locals unwilling to plug the Russia-related energy shortfall.

The gas Megafield Europe Can’t use

By Cagan Koc and Diederik Baazil

11:01 GMT+7 6 tháng 10, 2022, Bloomberg

Beneath the windmill-dotted marshlands of the Netherlands lies Europe’s largest natural gas reserve. The sprawling Groningen field has enough untapped capacity to replace, as soon as this winter, much of the fuel Germany once imported from Russia.

Instead the field is in the process of shutting down, and the Netherlands is rebuffing calls to pump more, even as Europe braces for perhaps its toughest winter since World War II. The reason: Drilling has led to repeated earthquakes, and Dutch officials are loath to risk a backlash from residents by breaking promises.

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As the US-Saudi oil spat intensifies, what are Biden’s options?

Analysis by Nadeen Ebrahim and Abbas Al Lawati, CNN

Updated 11:20 AM EDT, Fri October 14, 2022

Abdulaziz bin Salman, Saudi Arabia's energy minister, center, speaks during a news conference following a meeting of OPEC+ countries in Vienna, Austria, on October 5.

Abdulaziz bin Salman, Saudi Arabia’s energy minister, center, speaks during a news conference following a meeting of OPEC+ countries in Vienna, Austria, on October 5.Akos Stiller/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Editor’s Note: A version of this story first appeared in CNN’s Meanwhile in the Middle East newsletter, a three-times-a-week look inside the region’s biggest stories. Sign up here.Abu DhabiCNN — 

The Saudi-American relationship appears to have hit rock bottom.

After a move by the Saudi-led OPEC+ oil cartel to cut oil production, which could see inflation in the United States soaring just weeks ahead of the midterm elections, President Joe Biden told CNN’s Jake Tapper that it’s time for the US to rethink its relationship with Saudi Arabia.

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China’s economy is ‘in deep trouble’ as Xi heads for next decade in power

Laura He

Analysis by Laura He, CNN Business

Published 7:52 PM EDT, Fri October 14, 2022

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‘Are the best days behind China now?’ Disillusioned Chinese ponder future

14:05 – Source: CNNHong KongCNN Business — 

When Xi Jinping came to power a decade ago, China had just overtaken Japan to become the world’s second largest economy.

It has grown at a phenomenal pace since then. With an average annual growth rate of 6.7% since 2012, China has seen one of the fastest sustained expansions for a major economy in history. In 2021, its GDP hit nearly $18 trillion, constituting 18.4% of the global economy, according to the World Bank.

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