MANAGING THE WORLD’S OCEANS – A BRIEF HISTORY OF OCEAN POLICY AND MANAGEMENT

Michael K. Orbach, Professor of Marine Affairs & Policy
Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, NC, USA
(Paper presented at “Good Governance for Sustainable Marine Development”,
Cascais, Portugal, June 3 to 5, 2013

BACKGROUND

Since the early 1600s, ocean policy has been defined by the concept of the “freedom of the seas”, crafted basically because no single maritime power was powerful enough to control ocean space.

The first incursion on total freedom of the seas came in the 1790s with the establishment of the 3-mile Territorial Sea, initiated by the new United States to ward off their old rulers the British, but soon adopted universally by coastal nations. Tiếp tục đọc “MANAGING THE WORLD’S OCEANS – A BRIEF HISTORY OF OCEAN POLICY AND MANAGEMENT”