|Những động thái quân sự hóa lâu dài các đảo chiếm trái phép trên Biển Đông của Trung Quốc là mối đe dọa với an ninh khu vực. Ảnh: The Economist|
On July 12, 2016, an arbitral tribunal at the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague issued its ruling in Manila’s case against Beijing’s claims in the South China Sea. Convened under the compulsory dispute settlement provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the tribunal’s five arbitrators ruled overwhelmingly in the Philippines’ favor. Beijing refused to participate in the arbitration and rejected the outcome. Meanwhile, the newly-inaugurated president of the Philippines, Rodrigo Duterte, downplayed the victory in the hopes of coaxing China toward a more conciliatory policy and, as a result, international pressure on China to comply with the award has evaporated. The ruling clarified important aspects of UNCLOS and customary international law, but there was never much hope Beijing would accept its findings.
Nonetheless, many observers hoped that over time China might find politically face-saving ways to bring its claims and behavior into line with the substance of the ruling, even while rejecting the process. In the three years since the arbitral award, and since Manila’s adoption of a more accommodating policy toward Beijing, has China moved any closer to compliance? AMTI has compiled a list of actionable findings from the tribunal and assessed whether China’s recent actions are in-line with them. Overall, China is in compliance with just 2 of 11 parts of the ruling, while on another its position is too unclear to assess.
Arbitration Compliance Report Card
(Click each row for more information)
- China cannot claim historic or other rights within the “nine-dash line” beyond the territorial seas, EEZs, and continental shelves permitted by UNCLOS.
- Scarborough Shoal and high-tide features in the Spratlys generate territorial seas but not EEZs or continental shelves.
- Second Thomas Shoal and the waters around it are part of the EEZ and continental shelf of the Philippines.
- China illegally occupied Mischief Reef, which is part of the Philippine continental shelf.
- China illegally prevented the Philippines from exploiting the resources of its continental shelf.
- China violated the Philippines’ rights to fish within its EEZ.
- China failed to prevent its fishers from operating illegally in the Philippine EEZ.
- China illegally blocked traditional Filipino fishing at Scarborough Shoal.
- China allowed its fishers to illegally engage in environmentally destructive harvesting of endangered species.
- China illegally destroyed the marine environment through its island-building campaign.
- Chinese law enforcement vessels violated COLREGS by creating a risk of collision and danger to Philippine vessels.
Vietnam launched an unprecedented project 30 years ago to plant about two dozen steel structures the Vietnamese call “ocean fortresses” in the East Vietnam Sea that serve as service stations for Vietnamese naval soldiers who exercise the country’s sovereignty at sea.
The DK1 platforms, formally the “economic, scientific and technological service stations,” were established under an executive order issued on July 5, 1989 by Do Muoi, then-sitting Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the country’s premier. Continue reading “30 years ago, Vietnam began building ‘ocean fortresses’ to fence off intruders”
The Philippines on Wednesday condemned the “cowardly action” of a suspected Chinese fishing vessel accused of abandoning a Filipino fishing crew after a collision in the East Vietnam Sea, while thanking a Vietnamese ship for coming to the fishermen’s aid.
The Chinese ship on Sunday hit a Filipino craft anchored near Reed Bank causing it to sink and leaving 22 crewmen “to the mercy of the elements,” Philippine defense secretary Delfin Lorenzana was quoted by AFP as saying in a statement on Wednesday. Continue reading “Philippines thanks Vietnam for rescuing sinking crew abandoned by ‘cowardly’ Chinese boat”
Nhandan – Thứ hai, 13/05/2019 – 04:04 PM (GMT+7)
Nếu hỏi ngư dân miền trung rằng ở đâu thợ săn cá ngừ đại dương điêu luyện nhất, can trường, nghĩa tình và lãng mạn nhất, họ sẽ trả lời ngay đó là Thiện Chánh (xã Tam Quan Bắc, huyện Hoài Nhơn, tỉnh Bình Định). Mỗi trận bão tố, cuồng phong dập dồn thành một cuộc tập rèn nghị lực và đúc rút kinh nghiệm với đời ngư phủ. Bắt bệnh, chăm chút cho nhau trong những ngày phiêu dạt cũng đã hun đúc nên ý nghĩ sắt son, rằng: Biển là nhà, mọi ngư dân đều là anh em. Continue reading “Ở làng cá ngừ trăm tuổi”
|April 8, 2019 | AMTI BRIEF|
|Vietnam continues to quietly upgrade its facilities in the Spratly Islands, though apparently without facing the same reaction from China’s maritime militia forces as the Philippines recently has. Vietnam occupies 49 outposts spread across 27 features in the vicinity of the Spratly Islands. Of those 27 features, only 10 can be called islets while the rest are mostly underwater reefs and banks.
Spratly Island is the largest of Vietnam’s outposts and the administrative center of its presence in the area. In 2015-16, Vietnam undertook an expansion of the island to extend its small runway and create a protected harbor. In total, Hanoi created about 40 acres of new land at Spratly Island through a process that involved the use of construction equipment to dredge up part of the reef surrounding the island and cover it in sand. This process was more time-consuming and less environmentally disastrous than the methods used for China’s industrial-scale dredging and landfill at its facilities in the Spratlys, but still involved the intentional destruction of coral reef. Continue reading “Slow and Steady: Vietnam’s Spratly Upgrades”
Philippine president warns of possible military action if Beijing ‘touches’ Thitu island in South China Sea.
Friday April 5, 2019 AlJazeera
China, the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, Taiwan and Vietnam have all staked claims to various islands [Al Jazeera]
Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte has warned China to back off from a disputed island in the South China Sea, warning of possible military action if Beijing “touches” it amid rising tensions over the key waterway.
Beijing has snatched another patch of the South China Sea, with its “militia” seizing control of a string of sandbars and denying fishermen access.
China has won the South China Sea
There’s a new name in the South China Sea’s growing list of flashpoints: Thitu Island. While nowhere near the scale of Fiery Cross or Mischief Reefs, this island and bundle of low-lying sandbars off the Philippines coast is just as significant.
It’s a prosperous fishing spot. And it’s another potential territorial marker in the hotly contested international waterway.
Now, China has physically staked its claim over the sandbars that surround it. Continue reading “China’s latest island grab: Fishing ‘militia’ makes move on sandbars around Philippines’ Thitu Island”
Territorial and maritime disputes among Taiwan, China and several Southeast Asian countries are roiling the South China Sea region, with little prospect of resolution anytime soon. However, the current uneasy status quo may be tenable, so long as the parties embrace serious confidence-building measures through multilateral forums while maintaining effective deterrence vis-a-vis China and a commitment not to use offensive force.
OSAKA – Territorial and maritime disputes among China, Taiwan, and several Southeast Asian countries are roiling the South China Sea region, with little prospect of resolution anytime soon. But the current uneasy status quo may be tenable, so long as the parties embrace serious confidence-building measures through multilateral forums while maintaining effective deterrence vis-à-vis China and a commitment not to use offensive force. Continue reading “Treaty with Japan resolves claims – Hiệp ước San Francisco và tranh chấp Biển Đông”
Tác giả: Bộ Dân Vận và Chiêu Hồi VNCH
VOV.VN – Việt Nam kiên quyết phản đối hành động của Trung Quốc ở đá Bông Bay, yêu cầu Trung Quốc chấm dứt ngay và không tái diễn những hành động tương tự.
|Cấu trúc Trung Quốc xây dựng phi pháp trên đá Bông Bay thuộc quần đảo Hoàng Sa của Việt Nam. Ảnh: AMTI/CSIS.|
Ngày 22/11, tại cuộc họp báo thường kỳ của Bộ Ngoại giao, khi được hỏi về phản ứng của Việt Nam trước thông tin Trung Quốc đã lắp đặt một số cấu trúc mới trên đá Bông Bay thuộc quần đảo Hoàng Sa của Việt Nam, phó phát ngôn Bộ Ngoại giao Nguyễn Phương Trà khẳng định:
|November 20, 2018 | AMTI BRIEF|
|Recent satellite imagery of Bombay Reef in the Paracel Islands shows that China has installed a new platform at the largely untouched South China Sea feature, which is also claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam. The modest new structure appears to be anchored on the north edge of the reef and is topped by a radome and solar panels. The development is interesting given Bombay Reef’s strategic location, and the possibility that the structure’s rapid deployment could be repeated in other parts of the South China Sea. Continue reading “China Quietly Upgrades a Remote Reef”|
VNE – Thứ ba, 13/11/2018, 12:11 (GMT+7)
Washington lần đầu tiên thể hiện thái độ quyết liệt đối với hành động triển khai tên lửa phi pháp của Bắc Kinh tại đảo nhân tạo ở Trường Sa.
Tên lửa hành trình chống hạm YJ-12B của Trung Quốc. Ảnh: Twitter.
“Mỹ kêu gọi Trung Quốc rút các tổ hợp tên lửa khỏi các thực thể tranh chấp ở quần đảo Trường Sa và tái khẳng định rằng mọi quốc gia cần tránh giải quyết tranh chấp bằng những hành vi áp đặt hay đe dọa”, Asia Times ngày 12/11 dẫn thông cáo của Bộ Ngoại giao Mỹ sau đối thoại an ninh Mỹ – Trung được tổ chức tại Washington. Continue reading “Mỹ lần đầu công khai yêu cầu Trung Quốc rút tên lửa khỏi Trường Sa”