Council on Foreign Relations -Daily News Brief, Nov. 3, 2022

Top of the Agenda

Ethiopian Government Agrees to Truce With Tigrayan Rebels

After two years of fighting, the Ethiopian government and rebel Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) agreed to end hostilities (WaPo), disarm, and restore “law and order,” said Olusegun Obasanjo, the Horn of Africa envoy for the African Union (AU). The AU-mediated truce has raised hopes for an end to a war that has killed tens of thousands of people and displaced millions (Reuters).  The AU stepped in to mediate after a cease-fire declared by the government in March fell apart after five months. Obasanjo said the AU will monitor the implementation of the new peace deal, which stipulates that Ethiopia’s government will take control of Mekelle, the capital of the Tigray region, and that the TPLF will once again be recognized as a political party. Eritrea, which sent troops to fight alongside the Ethiopian government’s forces, was not part of the talks. 

This is a huge breakthrough that involved major concessions from both sides, even if the parties punted the thorniest details to future peace talks,” the International Crisis Group’s Alan Boswell tells Reuters. “If they do stop fighting, then today will just be the start of what will surely prove a very bumpy, long, and difficult peace process.” 

“The African Union-mediated deal in Ethiopia is important for watchers of regional organizations & world order. While too early to celebrate, AU shows the way when European regional institutions are weakening or busy fighting each other,” American University’s Amitav Acharya tweets. 

For the Africa in Transition blog, CFR’s Michelle Gavin explains the challenges that have hindered the AU-mediated negotiation process.
Tiếp tục đọc “Council on Foreign Relations -Daily News Brief, Nov. 3, 2022”

ISDS case map

facebook sharing button
twitter sharing button
whatsapp sharing button
linkedin sharing button

Click here for map >>

Click on the dots on the map to explore ISDS cases or look at the list below

Additional resources:

ISDS cases displayed on this map

Ampal-American vs. Egypt
Unión Fenosa vs. Egypt
Veolia vs. Egypt
Al-Kharafi vs. Libya
Carlyle vs. Morocco
Foresti vs. South Africa
Agro EcoEnergy vs. Tanzania
Total vs. Uganda
Border Timbers & Von Pezold vs. Zimbabwe
Bechtel, Enron and seven European banks vs. India
Vodafone vs. India
Churchill Mining vs. Indonesia
Newmont Mining vs. Indonesia
Khan Resources Inc. vs. Mongolia
Tethyan Copper vs. Pakistan
Fraport vs. Philippines
Hanocal & IPIC International vs. South Korea
Kingsgate vs. Thailand
ConocoPhillips & Perenco vs. Vietnam
Razvoj Golf & Elitech vs. Croatia
CME & Lauder vs. Czech Republic
Saluka vs. Czech Republic
Vermilion vs. France
Vattenfall vs. Germany I
Vattenfall vs. Germany II
Rockhopper vs. Italy
RWE vs. Netherlands
Eureko vs. Poland
Gabriel Resources vs. Romania
Micula vs.. Romania
Yukos vs. Russia
Achmea vs. Slovakia
Ascent Resources vs. Slovenia
NextEra vs. Spain
Latin AmericaNorth AmericaPacific
Abaclat vs. Argentina
Azurix vs. Argentina
CMS Gas vs. Argentina
Aguas del Tunari vs. Bolivia
Eco Oro vs. Colombia
Novartis vs. Colombia
Infinito Gold vs. Costa Rica
TCW vs. Dominican Republic
Chevron vs. Ecuador
Copper Mesa vs. Ecuador
Occidental Petroleum vs. Ecuador
Pac Rim vs. El Salvador
Kappes, Cassidy & Associates vs. Guatemala
RDC vs. Guatemala
Abengoa vs. Mexico
Cargill vs. Mexico
Metalclad vs. Mexico
Renco vs. Peru
Philip Morris vs. Uruguay
ConocoPhilips vs. Venezuela
Crystallex vs. Venezuela
Eli Lilly vs. Canada
Ethyl vs. Canada
ExxonMobil and Murphy Oil vs. Canada
Lone Pine vs. Canada
TC Energy vs. United States
Philip Morris vs. Australia
Barrick Gold vs. Papua New Guinea

Key ISDS facts

  • Amount of ISDS cases: 1104 (2020)
  • Total claimed amount: $US 570 billion (2018)
  • Average amount claimed by investors: US$ 1.5 billion
  • Average amount awarded by tribunals: US$ 438 million
  • Largest award: US$ 50 billion (Yukos vs. Russia)
  • Results of decisions (on the merits): 61% in favour of investors (2019)
  • Most invoked treaty in ISDS arbitrations: Energy Charter Treaty (135 cases)
  • Investor legal costs on average: US$ 6.4 million
  • States legal costs on average: US$ 4.7 million
  • ISDS proceedings average length: 4 years and a half


keywords: investor-state disputes | ISDS


Nỗi lo thiếu nước của Sài Gòn

TP HCM chỉ có thể cầm cự không quá một ngày nếu mất nước, bởi đô thị 10 triệu dân chưa có đủ nguồn dự phòng trong tình huống khẩn nguy.

Năm 1975, dân số TP HCM khoảng 3 triệu người. 47 năm sau, số người sinh sống tại thành phố là gần 10 triệu, chưa tính khách vãng lai. Để đáp ứng nhu cầu người dân và phát triển kinh tế của đô thị lớn nhất nước, hơn 4 thập niên qua, ngành cấp nước thành phố liên tục tăng công suất, từ 450.000 m3 lên 2,4 triệu m3 – hơn gấp 5 lần.ông suất cấp nước 47 năm qua tăng hơn gấp 5 lần.

Thống kê thời gian gần đây cứ 5 năm, thành phố lại tăng một triệu người. Nếu tính mỗi người cần trung bình 200 lít nước một ngày, đô thị lớn nhất Việt Nam sẽ tiêu thụ thêm 365 triệu m3 nước mỗi năm – bằng gần 1/4 dung tích hồ Dầu Tiếng (1,5 tỷ m3). Đó là chưa kể nhu cầu về nước cho các hoạt động sản xuất, dịch vụ còn cao hơn nhiều so với nước sinh hoạt.

Tiếp tục đọc “Nỗi lo thiếu nước của Sài Gòn”

EU warns of pesticide residues found in Vietnamese agricultural products

(VAN) The EU has warned that bitter leaves and some other agricultural products exported from Vietnam have exceeded the maximum residue level of many active ingredients and banned substances.

According to the Vietnam Sanitary and Phytosanitary Notification Authorities and Enquiry Point (SPS Vietnam Office), RASFF – Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Union (EU) has just sent a warning notice, stating that the product of frozen ground bitter leaves of An Van Co., Ltd. Thinh (Address: 60 Ly Thuong Kiet, Ward 1, Bao Loc City, Lam Dong Province) was found to have exceeded the maximum residue level (MRL) of many active ingredients and banned substances.

The product of frozen ground bitter leaves receives warning from the EU.
The product of frozen ground bitter leaves receives warning from the EU.

In which, some active ingredients have high residue levels such as: Thiamethoxam (54 mg/kg); Tebuconazole (26 mg/kg); Propiconazole (34 mg/kg); Diniconazole (86 mg/kg).

The country issuing the notification is the Netherlands, which has notified the consignee. Finland has initiated the recall of the product.

In addition to frozen ground bitter leaves, Vietnam has also received warning on tea exported to Hong Kong. This product contains three banned substances and pesticide residues exceeding EU regulations, including: Chlorfluazuron (0.11 mg/kg); Imidacloprid (0.15 mg/kg) and Chlorpyrifos (0.043 mg/kg).

Being the focal point for transparent information about SPS measures and regulations to WTO members, the Vietnam SPS Office has notified this issue to the Plant Protection Department and related units.

Tiếp tục đọc “EU warns of pesticide residues found in Vietnamese agricultural products”

Functional Jurisdiction in the Law of the Sea

Functional Jurisdiction in the Law of the Sea – Download >>

It is a commonplace observation that the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea establishes a framework for the Law of the Sea that is based upontwo different concepts. One is a zonal analysis, which takes the juridicalzones into which the seas are divided and stipulates the basic rules applica- ble to each of them in turn. The other is a topical analysis, taking some of themain activities on the seas, such as fishing, marine research and pollution,and again setting out the basic rules for each.

The framework is, however,incomplete, and a great deal is left open, not only to be worked out in moredetailed treaties but also to be governed by more general principles of inter-national law. In this way the 1982 regime will continue to develop to meet new challenges and changed circumstances.

In this monograph Dr Gavouneli explores these issues and offers an expertinsight into the jurisdictional developments that are clearly discernable aquarter-century after the adoption of the Convention. Her keen analysismoves from fundamental principles governing jurisdiction in internationallaw to shrewd reflections on the significance of current developments suchas the Proliferation Security Initiative and questions of jurisdiction over theinternational seabed area. This thoughtful text will be of real interest to allwho have a concern with the directions in which the contemporary Law of the Sea is growing.

Vaughan Lowe
Oxford, August 2007

Functional Jurisdiction in the Law of the Sea – Download >>