(Updated November 2021)
- Hydrogen is increasingly seen as a key component of future energy systems if it can be made without carbon dioxide emissions.
- It is starting to be used as a transport fuel, despite the need for high-pressure containment.
- The use of hydrogen in the production of liquid transport fuels from crude oil is increasing rapidly, and is vital where tar sands are the oil source.
- Hydrogen can be combined with carbon dioxide to make methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) which are important transport fuels.
- Hydrogen also has future application as industrial-scale replacement for coke in steelmaking and other metallurgical processes.
- Nuclear energy can be used to make hydrogen electrolytically, and in the future high-temperature reactors are likely to be used to make it thermochemically.
- The energy demand for hydrogen production could exceed that for electricity production today.
Hydrogen is not found in free form (H2) but must be liberated from molecules such as water or methane. It is therefore not an energy source and must be made, using energy. It is already a significant chemical product, about half of annual pure hydrogen production being used in making nitrogen fertilisers via the Haber process and about one-quarter to convert low-grade crude oils (especially those from tar sands) into liquid transport fuels. There is a lot of experience handling hydrogen on a large scale, though it is not as straightforward as natural gas.
Tiếp tục đọc “Hydrogen Production and Uses – The role of nuclear power”
Keisuke Tanigawa, The Real Japan
Shozo Kudo has risen from local politics in his Nagoya to the national legislature, where he is serving his third term. Formerly the Director of the Committee on Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Kudo is a strong advocate of hydrogen energy. He talks to Yukie Yamashita about the benefits hydrogen can bring the country
What are the challenges that need to be overcome in order for hydrogen use to become more widespread?
Japan lacks major fossil fuel resources such as oil, coal and natural gas, so the question of how to procure these is a constant issue. Hydrogen, which is found everywhere on the planet, is the ultimate renewable energy source and has the potential to solve Japan’s problem of scarce resources.
How did Japan come to push for research into hydrogen?
Tiếp tục đọc “Hydro power”
This Insight continues the OIES series considering the future of gas. The clear message from previous papers is that on the (increasingly certain) assumption that governments in major European gas markets remain committed to decarbonisation targets, the existing natural gas industry is under threat. It is therefore important to develop a decarbonisation narrative leading to a low- or zero-carbon gas implementation plan.
Previous papers have considered potential pathways for gas to decarbonise, specifically considering biogas and biomethane , and power-to-gas (electrolysis) . This paper goes on to consider the potential for production, transport and use of hydrogen in the decarbonising energy system. Previous papers predominately focused on Europe, which has been leading the way in decarbonisation. Hydrogen is now being considered more widely in various countries around the world, so this paper reflects that wider geographical coverage. Tiếp tục đọc “Hydrogen and decarbonisation of gas: false dawn or silver bullet?”