What effect did the Crusades have on the Middle East?

The Europeans besiege Jerusalem, seeking to "liberate" it from Muslim rule, 1099.
The Crusaders or Franks attack Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099. Getty Images

Updated June 13, 2017

Between 1095 and 1291, Christians from western Europe launched a series of eight major invasions against the Middle East. These attacks, called the Crusades, were aimed at “liberating” the Holy Land and Jerusalem from Muslim rule.

The Crusades were sparked by religious fervor in Europe, by exhortations from various Popes, and by the need to rid Europe of excess warriors left over from regional wars.

What effect did these attacks, which came from out of the blue from the perspective of Muslims and Jews in the Holy Land, have on the Middle East? Tiếp tục đọc “What effect did the Crusades have on the Middle East?”

Christianity and Violence: The Crusades

Knight of the Crusades
Knight of the Crusades. donald_gruener/E+/Getty

TC – by Austin Cline – Updated March 17, 2016

One of the most famous examples of religious violence in the Middle Ages is of course the Crusades – attempts by European Christians to impose their vision of religion upon Jews, Orthodox Christians, heretics, Muslims, and just about anyone else who happened to get in the way. Traditionally the term “Crusades” are limited to describing massive military expeditions by Christians to the Middle East, but it is more accurate to acknowledge that there also existed “crusades” internal to Europe and directed at local minority groups. Tiếp tục đọc “Christianity and Violence: The Crusades”

Merchants in the Temple

By Thought Matters –  11/16/2015 03:47 pm ET Updated Nov 13, 2016

2015-11-13-1447453743-8790583-merchantsinthetemple.jpg
By Gianluigi Nuzzi

Pope Francis Issues a Shocking Accusation

On July 28, 2013, a few hours after his customary religious obligations, Pope Francis prepared to go to the Apostolic Palace. As always, he checked his datebook first. “This is what I’ve always done. I carry it in a black briefcase. Inside is a razor, a breviary, an appointment book, and a book to read.” The Pope carefully reviewed his notes. That morning he had a meeting with Archbishop Jean Louis Bruguès, the librarian and archivist of the Holy See. But his most important appointment of the day was a noon meeting scheduled to take place in one of the most inaccessible and mysterious spaces in the Palace: the Sala Bologna, on the third floor, between the papal apartment recently vacated by Benedict XVI and the quarters of the Secretariat of State. Tiếp tục đọc “Merchants in the Temple”

Witch Hunts in Europe: Timeline

A History of Pursuit of Accused Witches

Saul and the Witch of Endor, 1526. Artist: Cornelisz van Oostsanen, Jacob (ca. 1470-1533)
Saul and the Witch of Endor, 1526. Artist: Cornelisz van Oostsanen, Jacob (ca. 1470-1533). Heritage Images/Getty Images / Getty Images

TC – Updated August 11, 2017

The history of witchcraft in Europe begins with both folk beliefs and with religious and classical texts. The texts have roots in Hebrew, Greek and Roman history. The development of beliefs about what witchcraft meant — and especially the history of its gradual identification as a kind of heresy — takes effect over hundreds of years. I have also included a few American and global events for perspective on the history of witchcraft trials and executions. Tiếp tục đọc “Witch Hunts in Europe: Timeline”