The Crusaders or Franks attack Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099. Getty Images
Updated June 13, 2017
Between 1095 and 1291, Christians from western Europe launched a series of eight major invasions against the Middle East. These attacks, called the Crusades, were aimed at “liberating” the Holy Land and Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
The Crusades were sparked by religious fervor in Europe, by exhortations from various Popes, and by the need to rid Europe of excess warriors left over from regional wars.
What effect did these attacks, which came from out of the blue from the perspective of Muslims and Jews in the Holy Land, have on the Middle East? Tiếp tục đọc “What effect did the Crusades have on the Middle East?”
Knight of the Crusades. donald_gruener/E+/Getty
TC – by Austin Cline – Updated March 17, 2016
One of the most famous examples of religious violence in the Middle Ages is of course the Crusades – attempts by European Christians to impose their vision of religion upon Jews, Orthodox Christians, heretics, Muslims, and just about anyone else who happened to get in the way. Traditionally the term “Crusades” are limited to describing massive military expeditions by Christians to the Middle East, but it is more accurate to acknowledge that there also existed “crusades” internal to Europe and directed at local minority groups. Tiếp tục đọc “Christianity and Violence: The Crusades”
A History of Pursuit of Accused Witches
Saul and the Witch of Endor, 1526. Artist: Cornelisz van Oostsanen, Jacob (ca. 1470-1533). Heritage Images/Getty Images / Getty Images
TC – Updated August 11, 2017
The history of witchcraft in Europe begins with both folk beliefs and with religious and classical texts. The texts have roots in Hebrew, Greek and Roman history. The development of beliefs about what witchcraft meant — and especially the history of its gradual identification as a kind of heresy — takes effect over hundreds of years. I have also included a few American and global events for perspective on the history of witchcraft trials and executions. Tiếp tục đọc “Witch Hunts in Europe: Timeline”