Exploring Saigon like a Saigonese

Thursday, October 29, 2020, 11:04 GMT+7 TUOITRENEWS

Exploring Saigon like a Saigonese
An old wall is seen in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Photo: Tran Hong Ngoc / Tuoi Tre

Ho Chi Minh City, also known as Saigon, is Vietnam’s largest city and known as the country’s economic and financial hub. Though many visit the city to check out modern life in the metropolis, they often forget about its role as a hub of culture and scientific development. 

Tiếp tục đọc “Exploring Saigon like a Saigonese”

Hanoi chronicles: when peace exposes the horrors of war

By Long Nguyen   November 11, 2020 | 11:49 am GMT+7 vnexpress

After first visiting the capital at the height of the Vietnam War more than 50 years ago, Thomas Billhardt has kept returning to Hanoi to chronicle its changes.

However, he chose to do it not with graphic pictures of the violence, but by capturing normal, daily life that highlighted what was being destroyed.

Since October this year, the 83-year-old German photographer has been fielding numerous calls and messages from Vietnam, unable to attend an exhibition featuring 130 photos he’d taken in Hanoi during the Vietnam War.

“I am sad that I cannot be in Hanoi this time because of the pandemic, but the city is always in my heart,” he told VnExpress International from Berlin, Germany.

Billhardt has won worldwide recognition for his work in the late sixties and early seventies when the Vietnam War was at its peak. His photographs of daily life amidst the war were powerfully poignant.

Thomas Billhardt at an exhibition. Photo courtesy of Thomas Billhardt.
Thomas Billhardt at an exhibition. Photo courtesy of Thomas Billhardt.

Billhardt loved photography as a child, being raised by a photographer mother. He graduated from the University of Graphics and Book Design in Leipzig in 1963. When he made the first of his 12 trips to Hanoi four years later, he never imagined that it would give birth to an association lasting more than five decades.

He first came to the capital city with a group of moviemakers from the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1967 to film a documentary about American soldiers captured in Hanoi amidst the infamous Operation Rolling Thunder, the bombing blitz unleashed by the U.S. against the north of Vietnam.

He remembers that at the Metropole, the fanciest hotel in town, “there were more mouses than guests and worms in the hotel’s water.”

Seeing the devastation of the war, the bomb craters, destroyed buildings, and the sounds of air raids and sirens calling for people to take cover, he was moved to tell the story of Hanoi and its people with a “photo chronicle.”

“I was angry on seeing the Americans destroy Hanoi… I wanted to show the world the photos I took in Vietnam so they would know exactly what was going on. Then they would understand and love Vietnam, just like me.”

He decided that his wartime photography would focus on people going about their daily lives, busy working and getting ready to fight at the same time.

A tram in 1975.The tram was a popular form of public transportation for Hanoians. Photo courtesy of Thomas Billhardt.
A tram in 1975. The tram was a popular form of public transportation for Hanoians. Photo courtesy of Thomas Billhardt.
See also Thomas Billhardt exhibition: War and Peace >>

The photographs of crowds cycling under pouring rain, the happy faces of barefoot children attending an outdoor painting class, a stadium filled with people cheering and laughing as they watched a football match and many such scenes of love and care powerfully contrasted and resisted the extreme violence of war.

“I felt a connection with Vietnamese people when looking into their eyes as they suffered from the raging war,” Billhardt recalled, adding the bravery of Vietnamese was a lesson for him.

“Thomas’s photos hold up a mirror to the world while holding out hope at the same time. They tell of the world’s social inequalities, of poverty, of suffering, of war, but also of the life and laughter of the people who live in it,” said Wilfried Eckstein, director of the Goethe Institute in Hanoi.

Tiếp tục đọc “Hanoi chronicles: when peace exposes the horrors of war”

Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – các cách dùng chúa nhật/chúa tàu/chúa nhà/thiên chúa” (phần 6A)

Linh mục Alexandre de Rhodes và cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày

Nguyễn Cung Thông[1]

Phần này bàn về cách dùng chúa so với chủ vào thời LM de Rhodes đến truyền đạo. Đây là lần đầu tiên các danh từ này được kí âm bằng chữ quốc ngữ và phản ánh cách đọc chính xác của chữ . Phần này cũng bàn về các danh từ chúa nhật, chúa nhà, chúa tàu, thiên chúachúa ý từng hiện diện vào thời LM de Rhodes.

Các tài liệu tham khảo chính của bài viết này là bốn tác phẩm của LM de Rhodes soạn: (a) cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày (viết tắt là PGTN), (b) Bản Báo Cáo vắn tắt về tiếng An Nam hay Đông Kinh (viết tắt là BBC), (c) Lịch Sử Vương Quốc Đàng Ngoài 1627-1646 và (d) tự điển Annam-Lusitan-Latinh (thường gọi là Việt-Bồ-La, viết tắt là VBL) có thể tra tự điển này trên mạng, như trang http://books.google.fr/books?id=uGhkAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Tiếp tục đọc “Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – các cách dùng chúa nhật/chúa tàu/chúa nhà/thiên chúa” (phần 6A)”

Unique water ceremony of the Jrai people

vietnamnet 3/11/2020    06:40 GMT+7

Dam San Music, Dancing and Singing Theatre in the Central Highlands province of Gia Lai recently hosted the water source worship ceremony for Jrai ethnicity locals in Krêl Village, Krêl Commune, Duc Co District.

The ceremony aims to wish for good health and bountiful crops.

As many as three shamans and four assistants join the ceremony. Offerings include a pig, 10 chickens, sticky rice and a jar of wine.

Tiếp tục đọc “Unique water ceremony of the Jrai people”

Vietnamese men remain mired in macho norms

By Linh Do   October 16, 2020 | 07:50 pm GMT+7Vietnamese men remain mired in macho normsAlmost all Vietnamese men think they need to be the “shoulders” for women to cry on. Illustration photo by Shutterstock.

Vietnamese men remain patriarchal, smoke and drink a lot, and feel pressured in life, a study by the Institute for Social Development Studies in Hanoi has found.

According to the study, which surveyed 2,567 men aged 18-64 from four representative geographical regions for two years, to be a “true man” in Vietnam still revolves around conservative values such as prioritizing work and career, being able to feed one’s wife and kids as the family’s breadwinner and “pillar”, daring to take risks and challenges, and being physically strong and possess sexual ability.

Tiếp tục đọc “Vietnamese men remain mired in macho norms”

“Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – từ nhà thương đến nhà thương xót và nhà tình thương, bệnh viện” (phần 25)

Linh mục Alexandre de Rhodes và cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày

Nguyễn Cung Thông[1]

Phần này bàn về cách dùng nhà thương vào thời LM de Rhodes đến truyền đạo. Đây là lần đầu tiên danh từ này được dùng trong tiếng Việt, so với cách dùng nhà Thương (Thương triều 商朝) cùng một cách phát âm nhưng nghĩa hoàn toàn khác nhau.

Các tài liệu tham khảo chính của bài viết này là bốn tác phẩm của LM de Rhodes soạn: (a) cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày (viết tắt là PGTN), (b) Bản Báo Cáo vắn tắt về tiếng An Nam hay Đông Kinh (viết tắt là BBC), (c) Lịch Sử Vương Quốc Đàng Ngoài 1627-1646 và (d) tự điển Annam-Lusitan-Latinh (thường gọi là Việt-Bồ-La, viết tắt là VBL) có thể tra tự điển này trên mạng, như trang http://books.google.fr/books?id=uGhkAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false.
Tiếp tục đọc ““Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – từ nhà thương đến nhà thương xót và nhà tình thương, bệnh viện” (phần 25)”

“Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – bản tường trình năm 1619 viết bởi LM João Rodrigues Girão” (phần 24)

Linh mục Alexandre de Rhodes và cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày

Nguyễn Cung Thông[1]

Phần này bàn về bản tường trình hàng năm gởi từ Ma Cao của LM Dòng Tên João Rodrigues Girão cho năm 1619.

Ngoài bức thư bằng tiếng Bồ-Đào-Nha này, các tài liệu tham khảo chính của bài viết này là bốn tác phẩm của LM de Rhodes soạn: (a) cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày (viết tắt là PGTN), (b) Bản Báo Cáo vắn tắt về tiếng An Nam hay Đông Kinh (viết tắt là BBC), (c) Lịch Sử Vương Quốc Đàng Ngoài 1627-1646 và (d) tự điển Annam-Lusitan-Latinh (thường gọi là Việt-Bồ-La, viết tắt là VBL) có thể tra tự điển này trên mạng, như trang http://books.google.fr/books?id=uGhkAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Tiếp tục đọc ““Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – bản tường trình năm 1619 viết bởi LM João Rodrigues Girão” (phần 24)”

Vietnamese American Pulitzer winner elected to Pulitzer prize board

Saturday, September 12, 2020, 18:00 GMT+7 tuoitre

Vietnamese American Pulitzer winner elected to Pulitzer prize board
Vietnamese American author Nguyen Thanh Viet is seen in a photo uploaded to his personal website vietnguyen.info.

Vietnamese American 2016 Pulitzer winner Nguyen Thanh Viet has been selected as the newest member of the Pulitzer Prize Board, according to an announcement on the award’s official website.

The selection was announced on September 8.

“It’s an honor to join the #Pulitzer Board, especially as its first Vietnamese American and Asian American member,” Viet wrote in a tweet on September 9.

“As someone fortunate enough to be a recipient of the prize, I know the impact that the prize has on a writer’s career and on the perceptions of readers. I’m delighted to join in the Board’s crucial work,” Viet told the Pulitzer.

Tiếp tục đọc “Vietnamese American Pulitzer winner elected to Pulitzer prize board”

French lensman depicts Vietnam’s travel destinations in late 19th century

By Mai Nhat   September 16, 2020 | 11:51 am GMT+7 vnexpress

French photographer Pierre Dieulefils documented Vietnamese landmarks like Saigon Notre Dame Cathedral, Ha Long Bay and Ban Gioc Waterfall in the late 19th century.

The 2.29-kilometer Long Bien Bridge, which connects the downtown district of Hoan Kiem with Long Bien District, was built between 1899 and 1902 by the French during their colonial rule. The bridge was initially called the Doumer Bridge after Paul Doumer, the French governor-general of Indochina in 1897. At the time of construction it was one of the worlds longest bridges. After the country’s liberation it was renamed Long Bien Bridge.In the late 19th century, some French, including Pierre Dieulefils went to Vietnam to study about Vietnamese culture. 261 of his photos, taken in Vietnams three regions in North, Central and South were printed in the book Beautiful and magnificent Indochina released last August.
The 2.29-kilometer Long Bien Bridge, which connects the downtown district of Hoan Kiem with Long Bien District, was built between 1898 and 1902 by the French during their colonial rule. It was initially called Doumer Bridge after Paul Doumer, a French governor-general of Indochina.
At the time of construction it was one of the world’s longest bridges. After the country’s liberation it was renamed Long Bien Bridge.
Pierre Dieulefils was a soldier in Indochina before returning to Vietnam in 1888 to follow his passion for photography. A total 261 of his photos, taken across Vietnam, were printed in the book “Beautiful and Magnificent Indochina” released last August.
The downtown area of Nam Dinh Province is viewed from above with  tiled roof architecture and close-up houses.
An aerial view of Nam Dinh Town’s center. The town is now capital of Nam Dinh Province in northern Vietnam, nearly 90 km from Hanoi.
Ha Long Bay still looks unspoiled at the end of the 19th century. More than a century ago, the beauty of Ha Long Bay and the life of the people there was an interesting topic that attracted many foreign photographers. In 1994, Ha Long Bay in the northern province of Quang Ninh was recognized by UNESCO as a world natural heritage, earning it a global fame.
Ha Long Bay more than a century ago.
In 1994, the bay in the northern province of Quang Ninh was recognized by UNESCO as a world natural heritage, earning it global fame.
Pierre Dieulefils also spendt much time visiting destinations in the northern border region, including the Ban Gioc waterfall. The waterfall is located in Trung Khanh District in Cao Bang Province on the border with China. Around 340 kilometers (225 miles) to the north of Hanoi, Ban Gioc is now a relatively uncrowded natural beauty in Vietnam and a popular tourist destination in northern Vietnam.
Ban Gioc is considered Vietnam’s most beautiful waterfall, one of the largest natural waterfalls in Southeast Asia, and also the fourth largest in the world amongst those located on an international border.
Ban Gioc Waterfall is in Trung Khanh District of Cao Bang Province on the border with China, around 340 km (225 miles) to the north of Hanoi.
The area outside the Hue Imperial in the capital town Hue in central Vietnam. The relic was built under the reigns of King Gia Long and Minh Mang, located to the north of Huong (Perfume) River. This place combines Vietnamese traditional architectural principles, eastern philosophical thought with the five elements yin and yang theory and the features of Western military architecture.
The area outside the Hue Imperial Citadel in Hue Town, central Vietnam.
The relic was built under the reigns of Kings Gia Long and Minh Mang, to the north of Huong (Perfume) River. It combines traditional Vietnamese architecture, the eastern philosophy of yin and yang, and Western military architecture.
Gia Long was the first emperor (ruling 1802-1820) of the Nguyen Dynasty, Vietnam’s last royal family (1802-1945), while Minh Mang was the second emperor (ruling 1820-1841).
Mossy stone steps at Thieu Tri Mausoleum, the burial place of Emperor Thieu Trii, the third king of the Nguyen Dynasty. This was part of the Hue Monuments Complex recognized by UNESCO as a World Cultural Heritage in 1993. Today, the mausoleum is located in Cu Chanh Village, in Huong Thuy Town.
Mossy stone steps at Thieu Tri Mausoleum, the tomb of Emperor Thieu Tri, the third Nguyen Dynasty king (ruling 1841-1847).
This area is now part of the Hue Monuments Complex recognized by UNESCO as a world cultural heritage in 1993. Today, the mausoleum is located in Cu Chanh Village of Huong Thuy Town in Hue.
Nine Dynastic Urns includes nine bronze urns located in front of The Mieu Temple in the Hue Imperial Citadel. Construction on the nine Dynastic Urns started in December 1835 and completed in June 1837 under the reign of King Minh Mang. Each urn was decorated with 17 bas-reliefs and named in accordance with the posthumous titles of Nguyen emperors worshipped in The Mieu temple.
Ninedynastic urns stand in front of The Mieu Temple in the Hue Imperial Citadel. Construction on these nine urns started in 1835 and completed in 1837 under the reign of King Minh Mang.
Each urn was decorated with 17 bas-reliefs and named in accordance with the posthumous titles of Nguyen emperors worshipped at The Mieu Temple.
Binh Loi Bridge in the early 20th century. Stretching 276 meters with six spans, Binh Loi was the first bridge to cross the Saigon River and part of the initial phase of the Saigon-Nha Trang railway line. It was built by Levallois-Perret, a construction company formed out of the former Maison Eiffel which was founded by the legendary engineer Gustave Eiffel.Last June, the bridge was dismantled because of deterioration after more than 100 years.
Binh Loi Bridge in Saigon. Stretching 276 m with six spans, Binh Loi was the first bridge to cross Saigon River and part of the initial phase of the Saigon-Nha Trang railway line. It was built by Levallois-Perret, a construction company formed out of the former Maison Eiffel, founded by legendary engineer Gustave Eiffel.
Last June, the bridge was dismantled because of deterioration after more than 100 years.
Boats in front of a factory in Cho Lon area, which was formed between the 17th and 19th centuries when ethnic Chinese and their offspring settled here and built a bustling area. When the French dominated the country, Cho Lon was a town distinct from Saigon. The two were combined in 1956. Currently it is Ho Chi Minh Citys Districts 5 and 6.
Boats in front of a factory in Cho Lon area, formed between the 17th and 19th centuries when ethnic Chinese and their relatives settled here and built a bustling area.
In the French colonial time, Cho Lon was a town distinct from Saigon. The two were combined in 1956. Currently, the Cho Lon area is in Saigon’s Districts 5 and 6.
A view of the old Saigon Notre Dame Cathedral. The cathedral did not have two bell towers when inaugurated in 1880. They were later added in 1985, to include a total of six large bronze bells, with two crosses at the top, 60.5 m above ground. Located in a tourist precinct that includes the historic Central Post Office in District 1, the 140-year-old cathedral is popular among foreign and local visitors, especially during holiday seasons.
The Saigon Notre Dame Cathedral did not have two bell towers when inaugurated in 1880. They were later added in 1985, to include a total of six large bronze bells, with two crosses at the top, 60.5 m above ground.
Located in a tourist precinct that includes the historic Central Post Office in District 1, the 140-year-old cathedral is popular among foreign and local visitors, especially during holiday season.
Pierre Dieulefils was born in Malestroit Village in the Bretagne region of France in 1862. He joined the army in 1883 and was later assigned to Indochina in 1885.Two years later, he was discharged and returned to France. In 1888, he returned to northern Vietnam and became a professional photographer and postcard publisher.In 1905, he went to Saigon and then traveled to Phnom Penh and Angkor Wat in Cambodia. In 1909, he gathered a set of photos on Indochina and published a photo book entitled Indo-chine Pittoresque & Monumentale: Annam - Tonkin. The work earned him a gold medal at the Brussels International Exposition of 1910. In 1913, he returned to France, spending most of his time composing poetry. He died in his hometown of Malestroit in 1937.
Pierre Dieulefils (1862-1937) joined the army in 1883 and was later assigned to Indochina in 1885. Two years later, he was discharged and returned to France. In 1888, he returned to northern Vietnam and became a professional photographer and postcard publisher.
In 1909, he gathered a set of photos on Indochina and published a photo book entitled “Indo-chine Pittoresque & Monumentale: Annam – Tonkin”. The work earned him a gold medal at the Brussels International Exposition of 1910.

Photos by Pierre Dieulefils

Vietnam in the late 19th century through French photographer’s lens

By Mai Nhat   September 14, 2020 | 08:40 am GMT+7 vietnamnet

French lensman Pierre Dieulefils captured images of daily life in Vietnam in the 1880s.

At the end of the 19th century, southern women preferred ao ngu than (five-part ao dai) with beaded jewelry. According to Vietnamese designer Sy Hoang, rich women in this period of time used to wear this type of ao dai, with the four layers representing the parents of both the wife and husband. The fifth layer represents the wearer. The clothing also has five buttons, symbolic of the five qualities every one should have - nhan (kindness), le(decorum), nghia(uprightness), tri(wisdom) and tin (faithfulness). These photos are in Indo-Chine Pittoresque & Monumentale: Annam – Tonkin book, which includes a collection of photos taken by French lensman Pierre Dieulefils, who was a soldier in Indochina before returning to Vietnam  in 1988 to follow his passion for photography.
At the end of the 19th century southern women preferred “ao ngu than” (five-piece ao dai) and beaded jewelry. According to designer Sy Hoang, rich women used to wear this type of ao dai, with four layers representing the parents of the wife and husband and the fifth, the wearer. The tunic also had five buttons, symbolic of the five qualities everyone should have – nhan (kindness), le (decorum), nghia (uprightness), tri (wisdom) and tin (faithfulness).
Tiếp tục đọc “Vietnam in the late 19th century through French photographer’s lens”

WorldKings recognizes 5 world culinary records from Vietnam

By Nguyen Quy   September 5, 2020 | 11:21 am GMT+7 vnexpressWorldKings recognizes 5 world culinary records from VietnamSpring rolls (left) and fresh summer rolls are among Vietnam’s most popular dishes. Photo by Shutterstock/Dmytro Gilitukha.

The World Records Union (WorldKings) has acknowledged five world culinary records set by Vietnam.

The country has the largest number (164) of “strand and broth” dishes in the world such as traditional noodles pho, Hue-style beef noodles and Quang-style noodles, and the most kinds (100) of mam, or salted fish, and dishes made from it, WorldKings announced on its website this week.

Tiếp tục đọc “WorldKings recognizes 5 world culinary records from Vietnam”

President Ho Chi Minh’s Stilt House in Hanoi

By Ha Thanh   September 5, 2020 | 12:03 pm GMT+7 VNExpress

Ho Chi Minh’s Stilt House, the living and working space of the former president, is a popular historic site in Hanoi for both Vietnamese and foreign travelers.
Built in 1958, the tile-roofed stilt house has a single floor and measures 10.5 metres in perimeter (??) and 6.2 metres in height. It resembles the style of the traditional of the Tay – Thai ethnic stilt house in Viet Bac, the northernmost region of Vietnam consisting of six provinces, Cao Bang, Bac Kan, Lang Son, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, and Thai Nguyen. Prior to the construction of the house, Ho Chi Minh, known affectionately as Uncle Ho, had discussed its design thoroughly with its architect, Nguyen Van Ninh. He wanted it to resemble his previous stilt house in Viet Bac, with the ground floor being open and the first having a study and a bedroom and a wall with a bookcase and surrounded by a verandah. Uncle Ho lived and worked here from 1958 until his death in 1969. It witnessed many monumental decisions made for the country, making it an architectural, cultural and political heritage of Vietnam.
Built in 1958, the tile-roofed stilt house at 1 Hoang Hoa Tham Street in Ba Dinh District has a single floor and measures 10.5 metres in length and 6.2 metres in width. It resembles the style of the traditional of the Tay – Thai ethnic stilt houses in Viet Bac, the northernmost region of Vietnam consisting of six provinces, Cao Bang, Bac Kan, Lang Son, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, and Thai Nguyen. Viet Bac was the name of the region in the time of war against the French colonists (1945-1954).
Tiếp tục đọc “President Ho Chi Minh’s Stilt House in Hanoi”

Phải lòng xứ Cù Lần

Ký sự của Hoàng Thiên Nga

Trong những ngày cả nước giãn cách phòng chống dịch Covid-19, du khách vắng bóng, hàng trăm lao động ở thung lũng ngàn hoa vẫn tất bật xây dựng thêm dãy nhà sàn lưu trú dưới tán rừng, hoàn tất dần từng khâu cần chăm chút cho tuors Đại Ngàn mà chủ doanh nghiệp tự tin sẽ “bùng nổ” khi dịch qua đi.  

Nép giữa cỏ hoa

Cách Đà Lạt tới 21 km, đường tới Làng Cù Lần uốn lượn giữa ngàn thông tuyệt đẹp, dù khá bất tiện với những người ngại di chuyển, thời gian ít. 

Làng Cù Lần cỏ hoa rực rỡ ở Lâm Đồng

Tiếp tục đọc “Phải lòng xứ Cù Lần”

“Tiếng Việt thời LM de Rhodes – tiền quí, cheo, tính tiền khi đi chợ …” (phần 21A)

Linh mục Alexandre de Rhodes và cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày

Nguyễn Cung Thông[1]

Phần này bàn về cách dùng tiền quí, cheo, bài ca dao “đi chợ tính tiền” và các cách tính tiền thời trước và thời LM de Rhodes, dựa vào tự điển Việt Bồ La và một số tài liệu chữ Nôm/chữ quốc ngữ. Đây là những chủ đề có rất ít người đề cập đến.

Tài liệu tham khảo chính của bài viết này là bốn tác phẩm của LM de Rhodes soạn: (a) cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày (viết tắt là PGTN), (b) Bản Báo Cáo vắn tắt về tiếng An Nam hay Đông Kinh (viết tắt là BBC), (c) Lịch Sử Vương Quốc Đàng Ngoài 1627-1646 và (d) từ điển Annam-Lusitan-Latinh (thường gọi là
Việt-Bồ-La, viết tắt là VBL) có thể tra từ điển này trên mạng, như trang này chẳng hạn
http://books.google.fr/books?id=uGhkAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false .
Tiếp tục đọc ““Tiếng Việt thời LM de Rhodes – tiền quí, cheo, tính tiền khi đi chợ …” (phần 21A)”

“Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – quan tiền xưa với nhận xét mới” (phần 21B)

Linh mục Alexandre de Rhodes và cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày

Nguyễn Cung Thông[1]

Phần này bàn về cách dùng quan tiền và các cách tính tiền thời trước và thời LM de Rhodes, dựa vào tự điển Việt Bồ La và một số tài liệu chữ quốc ngữ và nước ngoài. Ngoài ra, một số nhận xét của người ngoại quốc khi dùng đồng tiền An Nam cũng cho thấy thực trạng của loại tiền này. Các phê bình này hầu như thiếu vắng trong tài liệu Hán, Nôm hay chữ quốc ngữ. Đây là những chủ đề có rất ít người đề cập hay khảo sát sâu xa. Tiếp tục đọc ““Tiếng Việt từ thời LM de Rhodes – quan tiền xưa với nhận xét mới” (phần 21B)”