Nguồn gốc đàn tranh Việt Nam

Đây là ấn bản tiếng Việt thứ năm của tiểu luận Nguồn Gốc Đàn Tranh Việt Nam. Nếu ấn bản thứ nhất (1987), thứ hai (1990) và thứ ba (1996) đặt tiền đề và cơ sở lý luận về nguồn gốc đàn tranh Việt dựa trên các yếu tố ngôn ngữ học và thiết kế nhạc khí thì ấn bản thứ tư (2020) và ấn bản này cung cấp nhiều tư liệu lịch sử và khảo cổ để làm rõ và cũng cố những giả thuyết và kết luận được nêu ra trong ba ấn bản trước đây. Mong rằng tiểu luận này sẽ giúp bạn đọc mở ra một cái nhìn mới về lịch sử đàn tranh Việt và nhạc Việt.

Người viết xin chân thành cảm ơn Gsts. Nguyễn Thuyết Phong đã gửi tặng 2 tấm ảnh đàn tre goong trong bộ ảnh điền dã cuả Gs tại Việt Nam để minh họa cho phần viết về đàn tre trong tiểu luận này.

Lê Tuấn Hùng

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2021 Trafficking in Persons Report


To request a hard copy of the 2021 Trafficking in Persons Report, please email and provide your mailing address.


Message From the Secretary of State

Dear Reader:

Antony J. Blinken

This year’s Trafficking in Persons Report sends a strong message to the world that global crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and enduring discriminatory policies and practices, have a disproportionate effect on individuals already oppressed by other injustices.  These challenges further compound existing vulnerabilities to exploitation, including human trafficking.  We must break this inhumane cycle of discrimination and injustices if we hope to one day eliminate human trafficking.

The U.S. Department of State strives to advance around the world the security, prosperity, and values that U.S. citizens share.  We know recent events have led our country to grapple with unequal treatment and racism here at home that has reverberated around the world.  As a government and society, we strive to correct past wrongs and advance racial equity in the United States and abroad.  We commit to bringing this dedication to our efforts to fight human trafficking as well.  We will seek to use our year-round engagement with governments, advocates, and the private sector to build a more effective anti-trafficking strategy rooted in equity.  This must include coming to terms with our role in having perpetuated violence and dehumanized people, and we must work to right these past wrongs.

Systemic discrimination creates inequities between communities, whether the discrimination targets perceptions of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation and gender identity, or any other social identities.  It manifests in societal exclusion and prejudices against those communities, which help perpetuate an imbalance of opportunity and support.  These inequities undercut our goal of combating human trafficking and embolden traffickers. We have seen, for instance, how deeply held racial biases and stereotypes inappropriately influence outcomes for those in our criminal justice system as they lead to racially disparate assumptions about who is identified as a trafficker and who is identified as a victim.  This is not a new truth, but it is a somber, unacceptable reality.

Through this report, we call on governments to join the United States in improving our collective efforts to comprehensively address human trafficking.  Doing so requires us to mitigate harmful practices and policies that cause socioeconomic or political vulnerabilities that traffickers often prey on.  Part of this work requires us to acknowledge we will never be able to understand the full scope of what is needed without the expertise of those affected by systemic inequality.  Representation and diversity of experience and thought matter.  Therefore governments, including the United States, must foster an inclusive environment that allows for a thriving, diverse workforce at all levels.

I have said before, building a “more perfect union” is both an acknowledgement of our imperfection and a commitment to continue striving toward progress in a transparent way.  I believe that is true here.  I look forward to the work ahead, knowing there is much still to accomplish, and we will be more successful when we work together to achieve the goals of combating human trafficking and creating a more fair, equitable world.

Antony Blinken

Message From the Acting Director

Dear Reader:

Kari Johnstone

If there is one thing we have learned in the last year, it is that human trafficking does not stop during a pandemic.  The concurrence of the increased number of individuals at risk, traffickers’ ability to capitalize on competing crises, and the diversion of resources to pandemic response efforts has resulted in an ideal environment for human trafficking to flourish and evolve. Yet, despite the added challenges and risks that the pandemic has presented, we have also witnessed the adaptability among those continuing to combat human trafficking and their dedication to ensuring the continuation of anti-trafficking efforts to minimize the effects of the pandemic on victims and the broader anti-trafficking community.  This year, the TIP Report introduction examines the emerging trends, challenges, and adaptations to global anti-trafficking efforts as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

With this year’s Report we celebrate the efforts of anti-trafficking professionals who continued to serve and identify victims as well as prosecute traffickers amidst the pandemic’s devastating effects on the world’s most vulnerable populations.  We salute the survivor leaders––those with lived experience of human trafficking––who have demonstrated resilience and reaffirm that employing trauma- and survivor-informed approaches is essential, crisis or not.  While acknowledging these leaders, we recognize that many of us have also been touched by trauma, whether through loss of a loved one, our own illness, or dealing with large-scale lockdowns and extreme uncertainty.  A trauma-informed approach is needed now more than ever.  We must ensure that our commitment to victim-centered and trauma- and survivor-informed approaches when serving victims and survivors is uninterrupted.  We must also extend this approach to our interactions with our colleagues throughout the anti-trafficking field.

While hopeful that we’re turning the corner on the pandemic, we know that different countries are at different stages in their pandemic response and recovery.  We call on governments and anti-trafficking actors to draw inspiration from the innovation and leadership this Report highlights to continue and improve the response to combat trafficking even amidst the necessary recovery efforts.  We should also consider the lessons learned over the course of this global health crisis.  It is through collaboration and collective understanding of both the nuances of our profoundly changed world and the needs of those affected most by the compounding effects of both human trafficking and the COVID-19 pandemic that a path forward emerges.

Advancing a Rules-based Maritime Order in the Indo-Pacific

Pacific Forum

Issues & Insights Vol. 21, SR 2 — Advancing a Rules-based Maritime Order in the Indo-Pacific


Authors of this volume participated in the Indo-Pacific Maritime Security Expert Working Group’s 2021 workshop that took place, virtually on March 23-24. The working group, composed of esteemed international security scholars and maritime experts from Japan, the United States, and other Indo-Pacific states, was formed to promote effective U.S.-Japan cooperation on maritime security issues in the region through rigorous research on various legal interpretations, national policies, and cooperative frameworks to understand what is driving regional maritime tensions and what can be done to reduce those tensions. The workshop’s goal is to help generate sound, pragmatic and actionable policy solutions for the United States, Japan, and the wider region, and to ensure that the rule of law and the spirit of cooperation prevail in maritime Indo- Pacific.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction: Advancing a Rules-based Maritime Order in the Indo-Pacific | Jeffrey Ordaniel, Director, Maritime Programs, Pacific Forum
  2. Strengthening Maritime Crisis Prevention in Northeast Asia: A Focus on Subnational and Nonstate Actors | Shuxian Luo, Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Brookings Institution
  3. The Gaps in Japanese Maritime Security Law and the Senkaku Situation | Yurika Ishii, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Security Studies, National Defense Academy of Japan
  4. Maritime Security in the East China Sea: Japan’s Perspective | Atsuko Kanehara, Professor, Sophia University; President, Japanese Society of International Law
  5. Use of Force in International Law and the New China Coast Guard Law | Nguyen Thi Lan Huong, Research Fellow, East Sea Studies Institute, Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam
  6. Are We Ready for the Quad? Two Contradictory Goals | Kyoko Hatakeyama, Professor of International Relations, Graduate School of International Studies and Regional Development, University of Niigata Prefecture
  7. Modernizing U.S. Alliances for Maritime Security in the Indo-Pacific Virginia Bacay Watson, Professor, Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies
  8. Maritime Governance Capacity Building: A U.S.-Japan Alliance Agenda for Rule of Law in the Indo-Pacific | John Bradford, Senior Fellow, Maritime Security Programme at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University

Download the Full Volume >>

The Indo-Pacific Maritime Security Expert Working Group’s 2021 workshop and this volume were funded by a grant from the U.S. Embassy Tokyo, and implemented in collaboration with the Yokosuka Council on Asia Pacific Studies (YCAPS).

The statements made and views expressed are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of their respective organizations and affiliations. For questions, please email

Photo: The aircraft  carrier  USS  Ronald  Reagan  (CVN  76),  center  left,  and the Japanese helicopter destroyer JS Hyuga (DDH 181), center right, sail  in  formation  with  other  ships  from  the  U.S.  Navy  and  Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) as aircraft from the U.S. Air Force  and  Japan  Air  Self-Defense  Force  fly  overhead  in  formation during Keen Sword 2019 in the Philippine Sea. Keen Sword 2019 is a joint, bilateral field-training exercise involving U.S. military and JMSDF  personnel,  designed  to  increase  combat  readiness  and interoperability of the U.S.-Japan alliance. Source: U.S.  Navy  photo  by  Mass  Communication  Specialist  2nd  Class Kaila V. Peters/Public domain. 

USTR releases Annual Special 301 Report on Intellectual Property Protection

To read the full Special 301 Report, click here >>

04/30/2021 USTR

WASHINGTON – The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) today released its annual Special 301 Report on the adequacy and effectiveness of U.S. trading partners’ protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights.
“Intellectual property rights incentivize our creators, manufacturers, and innovators to invent new products and technologies,” said Ambassador Katherine Tai. “The laws, policies and practices that protect those rights must appropriately balance the interests of creators with those seeking to use their creations. Failing to adequately and effectively protect those rights in foreign markets hurts the U.S. economy, the dynamism of American innovators and the livelihoods of our workers.”
This annual report details USTR’s findings of more than 100 trading partners after significant research and enhanced engagement with stakeholders. Significant elements of the 2021 Special 301 Report include:
•    The 2021 Special 301 review period has taken place during the COVID-19 pandemic, the largest global health crisis in more than a century.  The top priority of the United States is saving lives and ending the pandemic in the United States and around the world.  As affirmed in the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, the United States, while recognizing the role of intellectual property (IP) protection in the development of new medicines, respects a trading partner’s right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.
•    The United States has been closely monitoring China’s progress in implementing its commitments under the United States-China Economic and Trade Agreement (Phase One Agreement).  In 2020, China published several draft IP-related legal and regulatory measures and finalized over a dozen measures.  Notably, China amended the Patent Law, Copyright Law, and Criminal Law in the past year.  However, these steps toward reform require effective implementation and fall short of the full range of fundamental changes needed to improve the IP landscape in China.
•    Border, criminal, and online enforcement against counterfeiting remains a global concern.  This past year, countries reported significant quantities of COVID-19 testing kits, personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N-95 and equivalent masks, and sanitizers, detergents, and disinfectants from China that were determined to be counterfeit. Widespread counterfeiting in China’s e-commerce markets, the largest in the world, has also been exacerbated by the migration of infringing sales from physical to online markets, which accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic.
•    Concerns with the European Union’s aggressive promotion of its exclusionary geographical indications policies persist.  The United States continues its intensive engagement in promoting and protecting access to foreign markets for U.S. exporters of products that are identified by common names or otherwise marketed under previously registered trademarks.
The report also highlights progress made by our trading partners to resolve and address IPR issues of concern to the United States:
•    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is removed from the Watch List this year due to the Ministry of Health and Prevention resolving concerns with IP protection of pharmaceutical products.  The UAE also made progress on longstanding IP enforcement concerns, particularly through increased efforts by Dubai Customs, publication of IP enforcement procedures by multiple enforcement authorities, publication of annual IP enforcement statistics by Federal Customs, and efforts by the Ajman Department of Economic Development to significantly reduce the availability in counterfeit goods at the Ajman China Mall, a notorious market for the past several years. 
•    Algeria moves from the Priority Watch List to the Watch List due to steps the government has taken to engage and cooperate with stakeholders, improve enforcement efforts, and reduce IP-related market access barriers.
•    Brazil’s law enforcement, with support from the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) International Computer Hacking and Intellectual Property (ICHIP) Advisor for Latin America & the Caribbean and Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS), the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Virginia, Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), as well as United Kingdom (UK) counterparts, launched “Operation 404.2,” which seized the domain names of multiple commercial websites engaged in the illegal reproduction and distribution of copyrighted works.
•    In the most significant criminal case under Taiwan’s recently amended Trade Secrets Act, a court ruled that a Taiwan semiconductor company and three former employees were guilty of stealing trade secrets from a U.S. company to enable the development of semiconductor chips by a Chinese state-owned enterprise.  The court imposed a $3.4 million fine on the Taiwan company and sentenced the former employees to 5-6 years in prison.  The case involved substantial cooperation with U.S. investigators and prosecutors.
•    Ukraine continued to take positive steps in 2020 toward a transparent, fair, and predictable system for the collective management of copyright royalties.  In particular, pursuant to 2018 legislation that fundamentally reformed its collective management organization (CMO) system, Ukraine held open competitions and made progress toward completing accreditation of two additional CMOs in 2020.  This follows the accreditation in 2019 of six other CMOs under the 2018 law.  Some of the accredited CMOs have completed royalty negotiations and are paying royalties to right holders.  For other CMOs selected under the 2018 law, accreditation and royalty negotiation progress continues.
The “Special 301” Report is an annual review of the global state of IP protection and enforcement.  USTR conducts this review pursuant to Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 and the Uruguay Round Agreements Act.
USTR reviewed more than one hundred (100) trading partners for this year’s Special 301 Report, and placed thirty-two (32) of them on the Priority Watch List or Watch List.
In this year’s Report, trading partners on the Priority Watch List present the most significant concerns this year regarding insufficient IP protection or enforcement or actions that otherwise limited market access for persons relying on intellectual property protection.  Nine countries — Argentina, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, and Venezuela — are on the Priority Watch List.  These countries will be the subject of particularly intense bilateral engagement during the coming year.
Twenty-three trading partners are on the Watch List, and merit bilateral attention to address underlying IP problems:  Algeria, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mexico, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.
USTR continued its enhanced approach to public engagement activities in this year’s Special 301 process.  USTR requested written submissions from the public through a notice published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2020 (Federal Register notice).  In addition, due to COVID-19, USTR fostered public participation via written submissions rather than an in-person hearing with the interagency Special 301 Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) sending written questions about issues relevant to the review to those that submitted written comments, including to representatives of foreign governments, industry, and non-governmental organizations.  USTR posted the written questions and the written responses online at ><, docket number USTR-2020-0041. 
The Federal Register notice drew submissions from 50 non-government stakeholders and 22 foreign governments.  The submissions filed in response to the Federal Register notice are available to the public online at , docket number USTR-2020-0041.

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From the Caribbean to South China: A Tale of Two Seas

Chinese vessels are moored at Whitsun Reef, South China Sea
In this March 31, 2021, file photo provided by the National Task Force-West Philippine Sea, Chinese vessels are moored at Whitsun Reef, South China Sea. (National Task Force-West Philippine Sea via AP, File)

27 Jul | By Joseph V. Micallef

Joseph V. Micallef is a best-selling military history and world affairs author, and keynote speaker. Follow him on Twitter @JosephVMicallef.

At first glance, the South and East China Seas, or China Seas, and the Caribbean Sea seem to have little in common.Advertisement

Situated on opposite ends of the Earth, they are what geographers describe as enclosed seas. To a naval strategist, that’s shorthand for an environment replete with numerous choke points from which maritime traffic can be interdicted.

Beyond this geostrategic similarity, however, these seas have another common element: the parallels and contrasts with how each region has handled the emergence of new military powers.

China in East Asia

For much of its history, China has been the predominant military power in East Asia. Historically, it was the largest country, had the largest population and the largest economy. All those factors are typically prerequisites for national power — a fact as true today as it was a millennium ago. The exceptions were periods when China was internally divided, beset by weak governments unable to assert their authority, or dominated by foreign powers.Advertisement

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As the Taliban surges across Afghanistan al-Qaeda is poised for a swift return

July 14, 2021 6.10am AEST

The Conversation

The imminent fall of Afghanistan is more than a national disaster. It is not just that the gains made in the past two decades, at the cost of tens of thousands of lives and trillions of dollars, look certain to be reversed as the Taliban advances.

The Taliban’s victory is also al-Qaeda’s victory, and it has global implications.

Even before the US military completes the final steps of its troop withdrawal, the Taliban is surging. It is now reported to control 212 districts — more than half of Afghanistan’s 407 districts. This is triple the territory it controlled on May 1. The Taliban has seized 51 districts since the start of July alone.

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Bổ nhiệm thẩm phán suốt đời để độc lập tư pháp

THU NGUYỆT Thứ Hai, ngày 4/1/2021 – 06:40

(PL)- Áp lực thẩm phán phải chịu khi bổ nhiệm theo nhiệm kỳ rất lớn nên bổ nhiệm suốt đời là điều kiện để bảo đảm tính độc lập của tòa án.

LTS: Bổ nhiệm thẩm phán không có nhiệm kỳ (tức bổ nhiệm suốt đời) là vấn đề đã nhiều lần được đặt ra nhưng chưa được mổ xẻ thấu đáo. Mới đây, nhóm nghiên cứu của TAND Tối cao khi dự thảo báo cáo đánh giá năm năm thi hành Luật Tổ chức TAND 2014 tiếp tục đưa ra đề xuất này và nhận được nhiều ý kiến khác nhau. Để có cái nhìn đa chiều, Pháp Luật TP.HCM trao đổi với GS-TS Lê Hồng Hạnh, nguyên Viện trưởng Viện Khoa học pháp lý, Bộ Tư pháp, về chủ đề này.

Bổ nhiệm  thẩm phán suốt đời để độc lập  tư pháp - ảnh 1
GS-TS Lê Hồng Hạnh, nguyên Viện trưởng Viện Khoa học pháp lý, Bộ Tư pháp

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“Tiếng Việt từ TK 17: tay mặt/hữu – tay tả/trái – tay đăm/chiêu” (phần 31)

Linh mục Alexandre de Rhodes và cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày

Nguyễn Cung Thông1

Phần này bàn về các tên gọi tay mặt, tay hữu … tay tả, tay trái vào thời LM de Rhodes đến truyền đạo. Đây là lần đầu tiên các danh từ như vậy được dùng trong tiếng Việt qua dạng con chữ La Tinh (chữ quốc ngữ). Ngoài ra, khái niệm mở rộng về bên mặt (> bên phải) so với bên trái cũng cho thấy sự tương đồng giữa các nền văn hóa khác nhau

Các tài liệu tham khảo chính của bài viết này là bốn tác phẩm của LM de Rhodes soạn: (a) cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày (viết tắt là PGTN), (b) Bản Báo Cáo vắn tắt về tiếng An Nam hay Đông Kinh (viết tắt là BBC), (c) Lịch Sử Vương Quốc Đàng Ngoài 1627-1646 và (d) tự điển Annam-Lusitan- Latinh (thường gọi là Việt-Bồ-La, viết tắt là VBL) có thể tra tự điển này trên mạng, như trang

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Kỷ niệm 70 năm ngân hàng Việt Nam (6-5-1951 – 6-5-2021) – Con đường thứ 5 (4 bài)


Kỷ niệm 70 năm ngân hàng Việt Nam (6-5-1951 – 6-5-2021) – Con đường thứ 5 – Bài 1: Ngân hàng không khóa

SGGP Thứ Hai, 3/5/2021 07:0

LTS: Trong cuộc kháng chiến chống Mỹ, cứu nước, có 5 con đường huyết mạch chi viện cho chiến trường miền Nam, đó là: Đường mòn Hồ Chí Minh, Đường ống xăng dầu Trường Sơn, Đường Hồ Chí Minh trên biển, Đường mòn Hồ Chí Minh trên không, và con đường thứ 5 không hình, không dạng với những câu chuyện gắn với “binh chủng tiền”. Kỷ niệm 70 năm Ngân hàng Việt Nam (6-5-1951 – 6-5-2021) là dịp nhắc nhớ về con đường thứ 5 này.

Đội vận chuyển tiền C100-đơn vị vận tải của đoàn 559 - Bộ Quốc phòng chuyển tiền và hàng vào Nam trên đường Trường Sơn huyền thoại. Ảnh: Ngân hàng Nhà nước cung cấp

Đội vận chuyển tiền C100-đơn vị vận tải của đoàn 559 – Bộ Quốc phòng chuyển tiền và hàng vào Nam trên đường Trường Sơn huyền thoại. Ảnh: Ngân hàng Nhà nước cung cấp

Khi có mặt ở Vụ Truyền thông, Ngân hàng Nhà nước Việt Nam tại Hà Nội vào một ngày tháng 4-2021, tôi đã nghĩ, những câu chuyện về “binh chủng tiền” ngày ấy cần được kể lại thật tỏ tường để thế hệ ngày nay hiểu và cảm nhận được. Nhưng, khi nghe một chuyên viên tại đây cho biết, phần lớn các nhân chứng lịch sử hồi ấy đều đã mất, các bác còn sống cũng già yếu lắm rồi, tôi thấy lòng mình đầy nuối tiếc…

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The Unlikely, Indispensable U.S.-Vietnam Partnership

July 6, 2021 CSIS


The U.S.-Vietnam relationship has been on an upward trajectory defined by common interests since diplomatic relations between the two countries normalized a quarter-century ago. Vietnam was one of two Southeast Asian countries specifically referenced in the Biden administration’s Interim National Security Strategic Guidance, demonstrating the extent to which it has become an increasingly critical part of U.S. defense planning for the region. Bilateral trade has grown over 200-fold since normalization. People-to-people ties have also grown as Vietnam’s tourism industry has developed. Since normalization, Vietnam has welcomed U.S. tourists, former Vietnam War veterans, and even former refugees and their families. U.S. schools and companies in turn have attracted Vietnamese students and recent graduates, who are among the best educated in the world despite the country’s lower level of economic development.

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CPI rises slowly as people run out of money

Chia sẻ | FaceBookTwitter Email Copy LinkInterested006/07/2021    10:00 GMT+7

The reported CPI only reflects 60-70 percent of the real situation, according to the former Chair of the Hanoi Supermarket Association Vu Vinh Phu.

CPI rises slowly as people run out of money

The General Statistics Office (GSO) has reported that the CPI increased by 1.47 percent in the first half of the year compared with the same period last year, the lowest increase since 2016.

The figure has surprised many people, because local media have reported sharp price increases of many products recently.

According to GSO, there were some factors that inhibited the CPI growth in H1. The prices of food products decreased by 39 percent compared with H1 2020, which caused the general CPI to decrease by 0.08 percentage point.

The government launched support packages to help people and businesses hit by Covid-19, including an electricity bill support package, which caused the average household-consumed electricity price to decrease by 3.06 percent, and made the general CPI decrease by 0.1 percentage point.

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Most businesses seek human resources upgrade: survey

By Phuong Dong   July 5, 2021 | 09:00 pm GMT+7 vnexpressMost businesses seek human resources upgrade: surveyA woman does office work using a laptop and calculator. Illustration photo by Shutterstock. Seventy percent of businesses would focus on re-educating and training their workforce in new skills needed on the job, said a human resources survey.

According to the survey conducted in 605 businesses by recruitment company Talentnet and its global counterpart Mercer last year, 20 percent of respondents were looking to recruit more workers this year.

These were firms in fields like finance, banking, insurance and construction, Tieu Yen Trinh, general director of Talentnet, said at a recent human resource management conference.

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PhD production plan: Will Project 89 go a new way?

VNN – 19/05/2021    09:00 GMT+7

Before launching Project 89 that aimed to produce 7,300 more lecturers with a doctoral degree, the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) ran two projects on preparing human resources with doctoral and master’s degrees, worth trillions of VND.

PhD production plan: Will Project 89 go a new way?

The state spent VND2.5 trillion on the project on training science and technology officers at foreign training facilities with state funds, under Project 322.

Under the Prime Minister’s Decision No 322 in 2000, the project would be implemented from 2000 to 2005, aiming to train and foster officers to have doctoral, master’s and bachelor’s degree at overseas training and research establishments, or in cooperation with foreign establishments, in order to satisfy the needs of industrialization and modernization.

The budget allocated for the training in 2000 was VND100 billion. However, Project 322 lasted only 10 years.

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Nước của phương Nam, mượn về phương Bắc

ĐỨC HOÀNG  8/6/2016 10:06 GMT+7

TTCTCao nguyên Thanh – Tạng là nơi bắt nguồn của 10 hệ thống sông quan trọng bậc nhất trong khu vực Nam và Đông Nam châu Á, trong đó có sông Mekong. Và vấn đề bảo vệ nguồn nước từ vùng đất này hiện phụ thuộc vào quốc gia đang quản lý nó, Trung Quốc.

Những công trình nắn dòng chảy thô bạo của Trung Quốc sẽ ảnh hưởng rất nhiều đến nguồn nước ở các nước hạ lư
Những công trình nắn dòng chảy thô bạo của Trung Quốc sẽ ảnh hưởng rất nhiều đến nguồn nước ở các nước hạ lư

Tiếp tục đọc “Nước của phương Nam, mượn về phương Bắc”

“Tiếng Việt từ TK 17: thợ dào, thợ rèn, thợ máy … dộng chúa” (phần 30)

Nguyễn Cung Thông 1

Phần này bàn về các tên gọi thợ dào, thợ rèn, thợ máy cùng tương quan Hán Việt đ – d như đao -dao, đáo –dáo vào thời LM de Rhodes đến truyền đạo. Đây là lần đầu tiên các danh từ như vậy được dùng trong tiếng Việt qua dạng con chữ La Tinh (chữ quốc ngữ), thí dụ như dộng trong câu làm khải dộng chúa hay cây da so với cây đa chẳng hạn.

Các tài liệu tham khảo chính của bài viết này là bốn tác phẩm của LM de Rhodes soạn: (a) cuốn Phép Giảng Tám Ngày (viết tắt là PGTN), (b) Bản Báo Cáo vắn tắt về tiếng An Nam hay Đông Kinh (viết tắt là BBC), (c) Lịch Sử Vương Quốc Đàng Ngoài 1627-1646 và (d) tự điển Annam-Lusitan-Latinh (thường gọi là Việt-Bồ-La, viết tắt là VBL) có thể tra tự điển này trên mạng, như trang;printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false .

Tiếp tục đọc ““Tiếng Việt từ TK 17: thợ dào, thợ rèn, thợ máy … dộng chúa” (phần 30)”