Country Climate and Development Report for Vietnam

Vietnam CCDR Report

Vietnam is increasingly seeing its development affected by climate change and now faces critical questions about how to respond. The Vietnam Country Climate and Development Report proposes that Vietnam shift its development paradigm by incorporating two critical pathways – resilient pathway and decarbonizing pathway – that will help the country balance its development goals with increasing climate risks.

After more than two decades of steady growth, Vietnam has set an ambitious goal of reaching high-income status by 2045. It has been recognized in the 2021-2030 Socioeconomic Development Strategy that the country’s economic transformation will greatly depend on better management of natural capital – the extensive stocks of agricultural, forest, and mineral resources that have helped drive development.

Yet Vietnam, with over 3,200 km of coastline and many low-lying cities and river delta regions, is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate change. Climate change impacts  – mainly higher and more variable temperatures and sea level rise  – are already disrupting economic activity and undermining growth. Initial calculations suggest that Vietnam lost $10 billion in 2020, or 3.2 percent of GDP, to climate change impacts.

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As biomass burning surges in Japan and South Korea, where will Asia get its wood?

by Annelise Giseburt on 19 May 2022

  • In 2021, Japan and South Korea imported a combined 6 million metric tons of wood pellets for what proponents claim is carbon-neutral energy.
  • Large subsidies for biomass have led Japan to import massive amounts of wood pellets from Vietnam and Canada; two pellet giants, Drax and Enviva, are now eyeing Japan for growth, even as the country may be cooling to the industry.
  • South Korea imports most of its pellets from Vietnamese acacia plantations, which environmentalists fear may eventually pressure natural forests; South Korea wants to grow its native production tenfold, including logging areas with high conservation value.
  • Vietnam may soon follow Japan and South Korea’s path as it phases out coal, and experts fear all this could add massive pressure on Southeast Asian forests, which are already among the most endangered in the world.

This is part two of a two part series on the Asian biomass expansion. Part one can be found here.

Under the guise of “carbon neutral” energy, Japan and South Korea’s appetite for woody biomass for electricity generation has increased exponentially over the past decade and continues to grow. The two nations’ biomass subsidies are spurring an increase in the production of wood for burning in Southeast Asia and North America, putting pressure on forests in those regions.

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Công bố Báo cáo triển vọng năng lượng Việt Nam 2021 – Đan Mạch khuyến nghị

15:09 | 02/06/2022

 – Ngày 2/6/2022, tại Hà Nội, Bộ Công Thương phối hợp với Đại sứ quán Đan Mạch tổ chức Lễ ra mắt Báo cáo triển vọng năng lượng Việt Nam 2021. Thứ trưởng Bộ Công Thương ông Đặng Hoàng An và Đại sứ Đan Mạch tại Việt Nam ông Kim Højlund Christensen đồng chủ trì sự kiện.

8 phát hiện và khuyến nghị chính của Báo cáo Triển vọng năng lượng Việt Nam 2021:

1. Hoàn toàn khả thi để phát triển một hệ thống năng lượng có mức phát thải ròng bằng không với chi phí tăng thêm chỉ 10% so với kịch bản cơ sở nếu thực hiện đúng cách.

2. Để đạt được mức phát thải ròng bằng không vào năm 2050 với chi phí thấp nhất, các nguồn năng lượng tái tạo cần là nguồn thay thế chính cho nhiên liệu hoá thạch. Hệ thống điện cần đáp ứng 70% nhu cầu năng lượng vào năm 2050. Các nguồn năng lượng tái tạo chính là điện mặt trời (75%) và điện gió (21%).

3. Quá trình chuyển đổi xanh của hệ thống điện cần nhiều vốn, tương đương mức đầu tư 167 tỷ USD/năm vào năm 2050 với kịch bản net-zero, tức là khoảng 11% GDP dự kiến năm 2050. Do đó việc tiếp cận các giải pháp tài chính chi phí thấp là tối cần thiết.

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The Impacts of US Wholesale Electricity Market Rules and Policies on Clean Energy Goals: A Primer for Local Governments

This paper discusses the evolving rules and policies of wholesale markets that can create barriers to local governments’ achievement of an effective and rapid clean energy transition. The report reviews the current barriers associated with transmission, market rules, and stakeholder processes across these markets while considering how these barriers affect local government clean energy and decarbonization goals, and the role of effective engagement in addressing these barriers.


Cover image



RegionNorth AmericaMarch 30, 2022

This Working Paper is part of Electricity Market Design within our Energy Program. Reach out to Zach Greene for more information.


Elise Caplan, Zach GreeneJoseph WombleKatrina McLaughlin and Lori Bird

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From Russia, with trepidation: will China sign a new gas deal to feed its energy needs?

  • The Ukraine war is complicating the calculus of China’s energy security and the prospect of a new energy deal with Russia
  • Can Beijing afford to be close to a Moscow that is increasingly politically and economically isolated?
Snow covers sections of connected pipework at the Gazprom PJSC Atamanskaya compressor station, part of the Power Of Siberia gas pipeline extending to China, near Svobodny, in the Amur region, Russia, in 2019. Photo: Bloomberg

Snow covers sections of connected pipework at the Gazprom PJSC Atamanskaya compressor station, part of the Power Of Siberia gas pipeline extending to China, near Svobodny, in the Amur region, Russia, in 2019. Photo: Bloomberg

Two recent developments reveal the possibility of a new energy agreement between China and Russia. First, Russian gas giant Gazprom PJSC announced a contract to design the Soyuz Vostok pipeline across Mongolia towards China. Second, Beijing is reported to be discussing with its state-owned companies opportunities to buy stakes in Russian energy companies, and is also looking at a Power of Siberia 2 pipeline to China.

With the exit of international energy companies from Russia following its invasion of Ukraine, Germany’s decision to halt the certification process of the Kremlin-backed Nord Stream 2 pipeline, and rounds of sanctions on Russia, there are certainly new opportunities for the Chinese government and companies to strengthen their position in the Russian market.

However, even as domestic, regional and global factors may push China towards a new energy deal with Russia, Beijing could also face a range of challenges.

Firstly, Beijing’s ambition to be carbon-neutral by 2060 and replace much coal with gas is one of the most important domestic factors prompting China to further improve its relations with Russia.

Russian gas exports – whether liquefied natural gas or pipeline gas delivered through the original Power of Siberia, for example – would help China reduce greenhouse gas emissions as the country makes a green transition.

Secondly, the withdrawal of Western energy companies such as BP and Shell from Russia due to the Ukraine war creates opportunities for Chinese energy companies, especially state-owned ones, to invest in Russia and diversify their portfolio.

Thirdly, while China also imports gas from Turkmenistan, Russian gas is one of the cheapest options for Chinese consumers, making a new energy deal with Russia that much more attractive.

However, there could also be obstacles to such a deal. One problem could be the political and economic uncertainties now looming over Russia; the deterioration of the Russian business environment under current sanctions might discourage Chinese companies from investing in Russia.

Particularly, sanctions led by Washington seem to inspire caution in Beijing and Chinese companies. For example, the state-run Sinopec Group recently suspended talks about a major petrochemical investment and a gas marketing venture in Russia, apparently heeding a government call to tread carefully with Russian assets.

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EU leaders seek escape route from Russian fossil fuels, weigh energy investment plan with Reuters

 10 Mar 2022

Europe’s energy independence from Russia, including in its financial aspects, will be a key topic of discussion at a two-day summit in Versailles hosted by the French EU presidency. [France Diplomatie – MEAE]

Comments Print     

European Union leaders will tackle ways to wean themselves off Russian fossil fuels on Thursday (10 March) and debate how quickly to ditch their key supplier, with countries split over whether to sanction oil and gas imports as Moscow wages war in Ukraine.

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Key Themes for the Global Energy Economy in 2022

We start with a review of short-term issues in the oil, gas and electricity markets. Bassam Fattouh and
Andreas Economou consider the outlook for oil demand over the next 12 months and discuss the ability
of OPEC+ producers to manage a gradual increase in production to balance the market, even as
demand growth is expected to soften. Their conclusion is that the oil price will remain within a $70-90
per barrel range, while refilling depleted storage will be a key issue. Price volatility, in light of
considerable uncertainty about both supply and demand, as well as political responses to high prices
will remain dominant issues in 2022. Anupama Sen, David Robinson and Rahmat Poudineh then
discuss government responses to current electricity price volatility, using the UK and Spain as examples
of different responses to providing protection for low-income consumers. They see the issue becoming
increasingly relevant as the energy transition progresses and suggest that government intervention
could become less and less effective unless energy policy is well designed.
In a somewhat similar vein, Mike Fulwood and Jack Sharples consider the outlook for gas prices and
supply to Europe and the implications for the global LNG market. Replenishing European storage will
be a critical issue in 2022, with LNG supply, Asian demand and pipeline exports from Russia being key
drivers to watch.

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Choáng ngợp với đề xuất đầu tư dự án điện

Đã có 55 địa phương gửi đề xuất tới Bộ Công thương để bổ sung đầu tư các dự án điện mới vào Dự thảo Quy hoạch Điện VIII với tổng công suất hơn 440.000 MW.TIN LIÊN QUAN

Tổng công suất nguồn điện mới được 55 địa phương này đề nghị đầu tư trong giai đoạn tới lên tới con số hơn 440.000 MW.

Đua đầu tư nguồn điện

Sau khi Văn phòng Chính phủ có công văn gửi các địa phương yêu cầu báo cáo tổng hợp các đề xuất bổ sung nguồn điện và lưới điện chưa được phê duyệt để Bộ Công thương tổng hợp, chuẩn bị cho Hội nghị trực tuyến với các địa phương của Chính phủ, các địa phương đã hưởng ứng rất nhiệt tình.

Nguồn tin của Báo Đầu tư cho hay, tới nay đã có 55 địa phương gửi đề xuất tới Bộ Công thương.

Đáng chú ý là, tổng công suất nguồn điện mới được 55 địa phương này đề nghị đầu tư trong giai đoạn tới lên tới con số hơn 440.000 MW.

Chẳng hạn, Ninh Thuận, địa phương đi đầu trong phát triển năng lượng tái tạo với điện mặt trời, điện gió 3 năm qua, đã đề nghị bổ sung vào Dự thảo Quy hoạch Điện VIII tổng công suất 42.595 MW nguồn điện mới.

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Năng lượng trong biến đổi khí hậu: Giải pháp cho Việt Nam ?

TS – 30/11/2021 07:30 –

Cho đến nay, ngay cả những quốc gia tiên tiến về KH&CN vẫn chưa có giải pháp nào coi là hoàn hảo về một nguồn năng lượng xanh không phát thải carbon.

TS. Trần Chí Thành là một chuyên gia về công nghệ hạt nhân và an toàn hạt nhân. Ảnh: Thanh Nhàn.

Tuy nhiên, ngay cả khi không tồn tại giải pháp nào hoàn hảo thì vẫn có những lựa chọn tối ưu – nghĩa là vừa đảm bảo an ninh năng lượng mà vẫn hạn chế phát thải, TS. Trần Chí Thành, Viện trưởng Viện Năng lượng nguyên tử Việt Nam, cho biết như vậy qua góc nhìn của một chuyên gia về công nghệ hạt nhân và an toàn hạt nhân.

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Can the world’s most polluting heavy industries decarbonize?

The production of steel, cement, and ammonia emit about one-fifth of all human-caused CO2. Technologies are emerging to decarbonize these problem industries, but analysts warn that big challenges remain.

A blast furnace at a steel mill in Salzgitter, Germany.
A blast furnace at a steel mill in Salzgitter, Germany. PLUS49 / CONSTRUCTION PHOTOGRAPHY / AVALON / GETTY IMAGES

This story was originally published by Yale Environment 360 and is reproduced here as part of the Climate Desk collaboration.

We know how to decarbonize energy production with renewable fuels and land transportation with electric vehicles. Blueprints for greening shipping and aircraft are being drawn up. But what about the big industrial processes? They look set to become decarbonization holdouts — the last and hardest CO2 emissions that we must eliminate if we are to achieve net-zero emissions by mid-century. In particular, how are we to green the three biggest globally-vital heavy industries: steel, cement, and ammonia, which together emit around a fifth of anthropogenic CO2? 

Our modern urban environments are largely constructed from concrete — which is made from cement — and steel. Most of our food is grown through the application of fertilizer made from ammonia. These most ubiquitous industrial materials are produced at huge expense of energy and carbon dioxide emissions. 

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Download full report here


What are the key corruption risks in the energy sector in Vietnam, with a focus on international budget aid, including aid from European donors?


Identify general risks of corruption, especially in the energy sector and determine what they mean for potential donors


  1. Overview of Vietnam’s energy sector
  2. Overview of corruption risks in Vietnam
  3. Corruption risks for budget support in the energy sector
  4. References


A growing population, a rising appetite for goods and services, rapid urbanisation, and fast growing economic activities in industrial and service sectors are exerting increased pressure on energy supplies in Vietnam. The availability of an adequate and reliable energy supply is an essential prerequisite for maintaining the country’s record of socially inclusive economic growth and achieving the government’s socio-economic development goals.

Overall, the energy sector in Vietnam is affected by weak governance due to a lack of transparency, few checks and balances, bureaucracy and close ties between government and businesses. With the Vietnamese government planning to attract more investment and donor money to guarantee energy security, it has made increasing efforts to tackle corruption, which have failed to cause significant improvements.

An increasingly vibrant civil society and a growing social media realm exerts pressure on the government to continue their path of anti-corruption policies. As for international budget aid, there are concerns that large infrastructure projects and public-private partnerships will increase the risk of corruption and will be subject to corrupt practices. When it comes to investment in renewable energy, it remains to be seen how these types of investment will affect corruption.


Katrin Heger



COP26 và tương lai năng lượng của Việt Nam

Nguyễn Đăng Anh Thi – 14/11/2021 15:56

(KTSG) – Hội nghị Biến đổi khí hậu của Liên hiệp quốc (COP26) tại Glasgow, Vương quốc Anh đang khép lại với những cam kết hành động mạnh mẽ của các lãnh đạo toàn cầu về cắt giảm phát thải, đầu tư tài chính và hỗ trợ chuyển dịch năng lượng. Tương lai năng lượng và mô hình tăng trưởng của Việt Nam sẽ như thế nào sau COP26?

Cam kết “đột phá” của Việt Nam tại COP26

Từ những ngày đầu COP26, những thông tin tích cực từ nước Anh cho thấy sẽ có bước đột phá của Việt Nam về cam kết giảm phát thải khí nhà kính, chung tay cùng nhân loại làm giảm sự nóng lên toàn cầu.

Ngày 1-11, trong bài phát biểu tại COP26, Thủ tướng Phạm Minh Chính đã đưa ra một tuyên bố lịch sử: “Mặc dù là nước đang phát triển mới chỉ bắt đầu tiến trình công nghiệp hóa trong hơn ba thập kỷ qua, Việt Nam là một nước có lợi thế về năng lượng tái tạo, sẽ xây dựng và triển khai các biện pháp giảm phát thải khí nhà kính mạnh mẽ bằng nguồn lực của mình, cùng với sự hợp tác và hỗ trợ của cộng đồng quốc tế, nhất là các nước phát triển, cả về tài chính và chuyển giao công nghệ, trong đó có thực hiện các cơ chế theo Thỏa thuận Paris, để đạt mức phát thải ròng bằng 0” vào năm 2050”.

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Five trends reshaping European power markets

By Eivind Samseth, Fabian Stockhausen, Xavier Veillard, and Alexander WeissO

Open interactive popup Article (8 pages)

European power markets have entered a period of unprecedented change. Power prices have touched new highs: baseload week-ahead prices have risen above €200 per megawatt-hour (MWh)1 in a number of European countries—about four times the average historical level. That increase has been prompted largely by a surge in natural-gas and carbon prices, which currently exceed €100 per MWh2 and €60 per metric ton, respectively. This development has affected the cost of power produced by natural-gas power plants, which broadly set prices in European markets.

At the same time, price volatility is reaching new heights as a result of the uncertain output of renewable assets and a tight supply-and-demand balance in the European power system. Navigating this next normal will be a key challenge for utilities, traders, and large power consumers, and that highlights the importance of developing resilient power-asset portfolios and managing risk.

In this article, we explore five trends that will shape the European power sector in the decade to come and offer some perspectives on how utilities and large consumers might respond.

What’s ahead for the European power sector?

The European power market is undergoing major changes. Five trends underpin these developments.

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What does the data tell us about electricity pricing in Laos?

By Ekaphone Phouthonesy12 October 2021 at 1:30 (Updated on 18 October 2021 at 15:00)

Through a variety of data sources an evidence-based picture of electricity pricing and the electricity-generation business in Laos is revealed.

A 42-year-old resident of Thongsanang village in central Vientiane, nicknamed To, was upset after receiving an electricity bill in May that was almost twice as high as normal.

“I’m going to send a letter to EDL asking them to investigate this unusual increase in my bill,” he told friends at a local coffee shop.

“Normally, I pay around 900,000 kip (US$95) a month, but this month I had to pay 1.6 million kip (US$168),” said Mr To, a worker with a monthly salary of about 1.8 million kip (US$190).

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Is Europe’s gas and electricity price surge a one-off?

Surging natural gas prices in Europe, driven by rising demand and tight supply, are pushing up electricity prices; to prevent volatility, governments need to commit more clearly to a low-carbon future.

Since January 2021, natural gas prices have soared by more than 170% in Europe (Figure 1), sparking concerns about the potential macroeconomic implications.

Both demand and supply factors have contributed to a tightening of the European gas market.

European gas demand is increasing in residential heating, industry and power generation. Higher demand for residential heating due to a cold winter and widespread remote working pushed up overall European gas demand by 7.6% in the first quarter of 2021. Also, a combination of continued industrial output rebound, summer heatwaves with increased use of air conditioning and rallying EU carbon prices fostering a switch from coal to gas, kept European gas demand high throughout the second quarter of the year.

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