ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation

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Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia Indonesia, 24 February 1976

The High Contracting Parties :

CONSCIOUS of the existing ties of history, geography and culture, which have bound their peoples together;

ANXIOUS to promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule or law and enhancing regional resilience in their relations;

DESIRING to enhance peace, friendship and mutual cooperation on matters affecting Southeast Asia consistent with the spirit and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Ten Principles adopted by the Asian-African Conference in Bandung on 25 April 1955, the Declaration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations signed in Bangkok on 8 August 1967, and the Declaration signed in Kuala Lumpur on 27 November 1971;

CONVINCED that the settlement of differences or disputes between their countries should be regulated by rational, effective and sufficiently flexible procedures, avoiding negative aftitudes which might endanger or hinder cooperation;

BELIEVING in the need for cooperation with all peace-loving nations, both within and outside Southeast Asia, in the furtherance of world peace, stability and harmony;

SOLEMNLY AGREE to enter into a Treaty of Amity and Cooperation as follows:


Article 1

The purpose of this Treaty is to promote perpetual peace, everlasting amity and cooperation among their peoples which would contribute to their strength, solidarity and closer relationship,

Article 2

In their relations with one another, the High Contracting Parties shall be guided by the following fundamental principles :

a. Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all nations;

b. The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coersion;

c. Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another;

d. Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful means;

e. Renunciation of the threat or use of force;

f. Effective cooperation among themselves.


Article 3

In pursuance of the purpose of this Treaty the High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to develop and strengthen the traditional, cultural and historical ties of friendship, good neighbourliness and cooperation which bind them together and shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed under this Treaty. In order to promote closer understanding among them, the High Contracting Parties shall encourage and facilitate contact and intercourse among their peoples.


Article 4

The High Contracting Parties shall promote active cooperation in the economic, social, technical, scientific and administrative fields as well as in matters of common ideals and aspirations of international peace and stability in the region and all other matters of common interest.

Article 5

Pursuant to Article 4 the High Contracting Parties shall exert their maximum efforts multilaterally as well as bilaterally on the basis of equality, non-discrimination and mutual benefit.

Article 6

The High Contracting Parties shall collaborate for the acceleration of the economic growth in the region in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of nations in Southeast Asia. To this end, they shall promote the greater utilization of their agriculture and industries, the expansion of their trade and the improvement of their economic infrastructure for the mutual benefit of their peoples. In this regard, they shall continue to explore all avenues for close and beneficial cooperation with other States as well as international and regional ~organisations outside the region.

Article 7

The High Contracting Parties, in order to achieve social justice and to raise the standards of living of the peoples of the region, shall intensify economic cooperation. For this purpose, they shall adopt appropriate regional strategies for economic development and mutual assistance.

Article 8

The High Contracting Parties shall strive to achieve the closest cooperation on the widest scale and shall seek to provide assistance to one another in the form of training and research facilities in the social, cultural, technical, scientific and administrative fields.

Article 9

The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to foster cooperation in the furtherance of the cause of peace, harmony, and stability in the region. To this end, the High Contracting Parties shall maintain regular contacts and consultations with one another on international and regional matters with a view to coordinating their views actions and policies.

Article 10

Each High Contracting Party shall not in any manner or form participate in any activity which shall constitute a threat to the political and economic stability, sovereignty, or territorial integrity of another High Contracting Party.

Article 11

The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to strengthen their respective national resilience in their political, economic, socio-cultural as well as security fields in conformity with their respective ideals and aspirations, free from external interference as well as internal subversive activities in order to preserve their respective national identities.

Article 12

The High Contracting Parties in their efforts to achieve regional prosperity and security, shall endeavour to cooperate in all fields for the promotion of regional resilience, based on the principles of self-confidence, self-reliance, mutual respect, cooperation and solidarity which will constitute the foundation for a strong and viable community of nations in Southeast Asia.


Article 13

The High Contracting Parties shall have the determination and good faith to prevent disputes from arising. In case disputes on matters directly affecting them should arise, especially disputes likely to disturb regional peace and harmony, they shall refrain from the threat or use of force and shall at all times settle such disputes among themselves through friendly negotiations.

Article 14

To settle disputes through regional processes, the High Contracting Parties shall constitute, as a continuing body, a High Council comprising a Representative at ministerial level from each of the High Contracting Parties to take cognizance of the existence of disputes or situations likely to disturb regional peace and harmony.

Article 15

In the event no solution is reached through direct negotiations, the High Council shall take cognizance of the dispute or the situation and shall recommend to the parties in dispute appropriate means of settlement such as good offices, mediation, inquiry or conciliation. The High Council may however offer its good offices, or upon agreement of the parties in dispute, constitute itself into a committee of mediation, inquiry or conciliation. When deemed necessary, the High Council shall recommend appropriate measures for the prevention of a deterioration of the dispute or the situation.

Article 16

The foregoing provision of this Chapter shall not apply to a dispute unless all the parties to the dispute agree to their application to that dispute. However, this shall not preclude the other High Contracting Parties not party to the dispute from offering all possible assistance to settle the said dispute. Parties to the dispute should be well disposed towards such offers of assistance.

Article 17

Nothing in this Treaty shall preclude recourse to the modes of peaceful settlement contained in Article 33(l) of the Charter of the United Nations. The High Contracting Parties which are parties to a dispute should be encouraged to take initiatives to solve it by friendly negotiations before resorting to the other procedures provided for in the Charter of the United Nations.

CHAPTER V : General Provision

Article 18

This Treaty shall be signed by the Republic of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Republic of the Philippines, the Republic of Singapore and the Kingdom of Thailand. It shall be ratified in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each signatory State. It shall be open for accession by other States in Southeast Asia.

Article 19

This Treaty shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification with the Governments of the signatory States which are designated Depositories of this Treaty and the instruments of ratification or accession.

Article 20

This Treaty is drawn up in the official languages of the High Contracting Parties, all of which are equally authoritative. There shall be an agreed common translation of the texts in the English language. Any divergent interpretation of the common text shall be settled by negotiation.

IN FAITH THEREOF the High Contracting Parties have signed the Treaty and have hereto affixed their Seals.

DONE at Denpasar, Bali, this twenty-fourth day of February in the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy-six.

pol agr2

East Sea issues and goodwill from ASEAN, China and other countries

15/09/2020    11:34 GMT+7 vietnamnet

Regarding the East Sea issue, all countries attending the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) shared the spirit of making a contribution to dialogue and cooperation, said Director of the Foreign Ministry’s ASEAN Affairs Department Vu Ho.

Thiện chí của ASEAN, Trung Quốc và các nước khi bàn về Biển Đông
Director General of the ASEAN Affairs Department Vu Ho. Photo: Pham Hai

The 27th ARF took place on September 12 with the participation of foreign ministers of 27 countries. The meeting discussed many regional and international issues. Mr. Vu Ho talked with VietNamNet on the sidelines of the conference. Tiếp tục đọc “East Sea issues and goodwill from ASEAN, China and other countries”

ASEAN resolves disputes in East Sea by international law

vietnamnet 11/09/2020    16:07 GMT+7

ASEAN is steadfast in its stance of restraint and peaceful settlement of disputes on the basis of international law in the face of threats to stability, security and safety, and freedom of navigation and aviation in the East Sea.

Speaking at the opening of the 53rd ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting (AMM 53) and related conferences on September 9, Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Pham Binh Minh said this was the first time the meeting has been held online. “Dynamism in action, flexibility in response, and creativity in cooperation are characteristic of ASEAN over the past five decades,” he said.

ASEAN kiên định giải quyết tranh chấp ở Biển Đông bằng luật pháp quốc tế
Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Pham Binh Minh

Entering its 6th decade, ASEAN is now in a period of accelerating community building, while promoting its role and position in the region and actively contributing to efforts for peace, stability and development of the international community.

Tiếp tục đọc “ASEAN resolves disputes in East Sea by international law”

Họp với ASEAN, quan chức quốc phòng Mỹ quan ngại Trung Quốc tập trận ở Hoàng Sa

Đại diện Bộ Quốc phòng Mỹ tham dự hội nghị quan chức Quốc phòng ASEAN mở rộng đã phát biểu bày tỏ quan ngại về các cuộc diễn tập của Trung Quốc tại quần đảo Hoàng Sa.

Sáng nay (7/7), tại Hà Nội, Bộ Quốc phòng tổ chức hội nghị trực tuyến Quan chức Quốc phòng cấp cao các nước ASEAN mở rộng (ADSOM+).

Với sự tham dự của Trưởng ADSOM+ 9 nước ASEAN và 8 nước (Nga, Trung Quốc, Hoa Kỳ, Nhật Bản, Hàn Quốc, Australia, New Zealand, Ấn Độ), Phó tổng Thư ký ASEAN.

Phát biểu từ điểm cầu Mỹ, ông Chris Johnstone, Trưởng phòng Nam – Đông Nam Á thuộc Văn phòng Bộ Quốc phòng Mỹ, đánh giá cao những nỗ lực chống bệnh dịch đang diễn ra hằng ngày, lực lượng vũ trang của Mỹ đang thực hiện nghĩa vụ của mình ở bất cứ nơi nào luật pháp quốc tế cho phép.

Họp với ASEAN, quan chức quốc phòng Mỹ quan ngại Trung Quốc tập trận ở Hoàng Sa
Điểm cầu với sự tham gia của quan chức quốc phòng các nước

“Chúng tôi cũng đang thực hiện nhiệm vụ đi lại tự do trên vùng biển quốc tế với ASEAN và các quốc gia đối tác, để có thể thúc đẩy hòa bình, an ninh và tự do hàng hải, hàng không tại Biển Đông. Chúng tôi cũng hoan nghênh tuyên bố của các lãnh đạo ASEAN về việc giải quyết các vấn đề bằng biện pháp hòa bình, phù hợp với luật pháp quốc tế”, ông Chris Johnstone cho hay.

Mỹ cùng với Việt Nam và Singapore quan ngại về các cuộc diễn tập gần đây của Trung Quốc tại quần đảo Hoàng Sa và coi hoạt động này là phản tác dụng, vi phạm Tuyên bố ứng xử của các bên ở Biển Đông (DOC) và làm căng thẳng tình hình khu vực.

“Chúng tôi kêu gọi các bên giải quyết tranh chấp phù hợp với luật pháp quốc tế và chúng tôi mong muốn thúc đẩy quan hệ đối tác và hợp tác chặt chẽ để thúc đẩy an ninh, an toàn với các đối tác và đồng minh để thúc đẩy một trật tự dựa trên luật lệ. Chúng tôi sẽ tiếp tục hợp tác với quý vị trong thời gian sắp tới” ông Chris Johnstone nhấn mạnh.

Cục Hải sự tỉnh Hải Nam hôm 29/6 thông báo quân đội Trung Quốc sẽ tiến hành cuộc tập trận từ ngày 30/6 đến 5/7 gần quần đảo Hoàng Sa của Việt Nam và yêu cầu tàu thuyền tránh xa khu vực này.

Việt Nam đã trao công hàm phản đối Trung Quốc tập trận tại Hoàng Sa, yêu cầu không tái diễn hành động tập trận trái phép ở Hoàng Sa.

Trong cuộc họp báo gần đây, người phát ngôn bộ Ngoại giao Lê Thị Thu Hằng cho biết việc Trung Quốc tập trận tại khu vực quần đảo Hoàng Sa của Việt Nam đã vi phạm chủ quyền của Việt Nam, đi ngược tinh thần Tuyên bố ứng xử của các bên ở Biển Đông (DOC), gây phức tạp tình hình, không có lợi cho quá trình đàm phán giữa Trung Quốc và ASEAN về Bộ Quy tắc ứng xử giữa các bên ở Biển Đông (COC), cũng như duy trì hòa bình, ổn định và hợp tác ở Biển Đông.

Người phát ngôn khẳng định Việt Nam có đầy đủ bằng chứng lịch sử và căn cứ pháp lý để khẳng định chủ quyền với Trường Sa và Hoàng Sa, phù hợp với luật pháp quốc tế. Mọi hoạt động của các bên tại Trường Sa và Hoàng Sa mà không có sự cho phép của Việt Nam đều vô giá trị.

Thành Nam

Việt Nam trao công hàm phản đối Trung Quốc tập trận ở Hoàng Sa

Việt Nam trao công hàm phản đối Trung Quốc tập trận ở Hoàng Sa

Việt Nam đã trao công hàm phản đối, yêu cầu Trung Quốc không lặp lại hành động tập trận ở Hoàng Sa trong ….

Nhiều nước lên tiếng về Biển Đông tại diễn đàn an ninh khu vực

Sáng nay (8/7), tại Hà Nội, Bộ Quốc phòng tổ chức hội nghị trực tuyến Chính sách an ninh Diễn đàn khu vực ASEAN (ASPC). Thượng tướng Nguyễn Chí Vịnh, Thứ trưởng Bộ Quốc phòng, Trưởng SOM Việt Nam chủ trì.

Tham gia hội nghị có đại diện 26 nước đối tác trong khuôn khổ ARF, ban thư ký ASEAN. Tiếp tục đọc “Nhiều nước lên tiếng về Biển Đông tại diễn đàn an ninh khu vực”

Asean Meeting of Finance Chiefs to Proceed in Vietnam in March

Karlis Salna – Nguyen Dieu Tu Uyen March 12 2020, 2:24 PM (Bloomberg)

Finance ministers and central bank governors from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations will meet in Vietnam later this month after initially weighing a proposal to postpone the summit due to the coronavirus. Authorities in Vietnam, which holds the Asean chairmanship, have confirmed the summit will now go ahead as scheduled, the Asean Secretariat said Thursday. Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc had been weighing a proposal to postpone the meeting, set to take place over four days in Halong Bay, a beach city north of Hanoi, beginning March 24. Finance and central bank officials from across Southeast Asia, as well as Japan, South Korea and China, had been expected to attend.

Read more at:

Copyright © BloombergQuint

Vietnam joins ASEAN effort to combat IUU fishing

This file photo shows Indonesian authorities sinking a Vietnamese fishing boat at Datuk island, in West Kalimantan on 4 May, 2019. (AFP Photo)
Relations between the EU and some ASEAN member states have been tense in recent years because of the seafood trade, stemming from the European Commission’s (EC) sanctions related to the illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. As Chair of ASEAN 2020, Vietnam hopes to promote cooperation among ASEAN member states and address this issue to actively contribute towards better ASEAN-EU trade relations. Tiếp tục đọc “Vietnam joins ASEAN effort to combat IUU fishing”



Thailand hands over ASEAN Chairmanship to Vietnam

On November 4, the ASEAN chair’s gavel was passed to Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc of Vietnam at the closing ceremony of the grouping’s annual summit in Bangkok. Vietnam will serve as the chair of ASEAN, the most important international organization in Southeast Asia, through 2020. This will be a crucial year for the grouping as it attempts to reach the goals set forth in the ASEAN Vision 2020, which was released in 1997 and envisions the establishment of a region of peace, prosperity, and stability. It is especially significant for Vietnam because the chairmanship will offer a unique opportunity to engage the region to take constructive action on the South China Sea disputes which have long threatened regional peace and security. With the chairmanship in hand, now is the time for Hanoi to be more active in fulfilling both its regional and its national responsibilities in the South China Sea. Tiếp tục đọc “ASEAN AND THE SOUTH CHINA SEA: VIETNAM’S ROLE AS CHAIR”

ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific


The AsiaPacific and Indian Ocean regions are amongst the most dynamic in the world as well as centers of economic growth for decadesAs a result, these regions continue to experience geopolitical and geostrategic shiftsThese shifts present opportunities as well as challengesOn the one hand, the economic growth of the region opens up possibilities of cooperation to alleviate poverty and elevate living standards of millions of peopleOn the other hand, the rise of material powers, i.eeconomic and military, requires avoiding the deepening of mistrust, miscalculation, and patterns of behavior based on a zerosum game.

Download the full statement here.

ASEAN CÓ THỂ NGĂN NGỪA “CHIẾN TRANH NƯỚC” MEKONG NHƯ THẾ NÀO – How Asean can avoid Mekong ‘water war’

Anchalee Kongrut – Bình Yên Đông lược dịch, Bangkok Post – 31 October 2019 Mekong-cuulong Blog

Đập thủy điện Xayaburi ở Lào [Ảnh: Chiang Rai Times]

Đập Xayaburi, đập đầu tiên trên dòng chánh ở hạ lưu sông Mekong, đã bắt đầu hoạt động đúng vào thời điểm đáng chú ý – chỉ vài ngày trước khi Thái Lan đăng cai Thượng đỉnh ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Hiệp hội các Quốc gia Đông Nam Á)) thứ 35th trong tuần nầy.

Đáng chú ý vì con đập, được xây trong lãnh thổ Lào – cùng với 10 đập tiếp theo trên sông Mekong – được ca tụng như là một đỉnh cao của đối tác và hợp tác kinh tế giữa các quốc gia ASEAN.  Nó được tài trợ bởi một nhà đầu tư Thái và trên 90% số điện sản xuất sẽ được bán cho Cơ quan Phát Điện Thái Lan (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT)). Tiếp tục đọc “ASEAN CÓ THỂ NGĂN NGỪA “CHIẾN TRANH NƯỚC” MEKONG NHƯ THẾ NÀO – How Asean can avoid Mekong ‘water war’”

ARF: Application de la CNUDM 1982 pour faire face aux défis émergents

lecourrier 26/02/2019 23:37
Dans le contexte des défis émergents tels que le changement climatique, l’élévation du niveau de la mer, l’exploitation de ressources marines non durables, la pollution marine…, la CNUDM 1982 et d’autres documents internationaux concernés devraient constituer un cadre juridique important permettant d’intensifier la coopération dans la restauration et l’utilisation de manière durable des ressources maritimes.
Le séminaire de l’ARF sur l’application de la CNUDM 1982 se tient les 26 et 27 février dans la province de Khanh Hoà (Centre). Photo: Tiên Minh/VNA/CVN
Un séminaire du Forum régional de l’Asean (ARF) sur l’application de la Convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer 1982 (CNUDM 1982) et d’autres instruments juridiques internationaux pour faire face aux défis émergents liés à la mer, se tient les mardi 26 et mercredi 27 février dans la ville de Nha Trang, province de Khanh Hoà (Centre) réunissant plus de 80 délégués de 20 pays membre de l’ARF. Tiếp tục đọc “ARF: Application de la CNUDM 1982 pour faire face aux défis émergents”

The State of Southeast Asia 2019

Download report >>

Abstract: The ASEAN Studies Centre at ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute conducted the “State of Southeast Asia: 2019” online survey between 18 November and 5 December 2018 to seek the views of Southeast Asians onregional affairs. The survey used the purposive sampling method, canvassing views from a total of 1,008 Southeast Asians who are regional experts and stakeholders from the policy, research, business, civil society, and media communities. As such, the results of this survey are not meant to be representative. Rather, it aims to present a general view of prevailing attitudes among those in a position to inform or influence policy on regional political, economic and social issues and concerns.

The survey is divided into five sections.

The first section sketches out the nationality and affiliation of the respondents.

Section II explores the political and economic outlook for 2019, as well as providing views on major developments in the year ahead and security concerns. Some of the issues covered in this section include the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), the US-China trade war, denuclearisation in the Korean Peninsula and Rohingya issue.

Section III examines major power relations in the region, with a specific focus on the US and China.

Section IV looks into the region’s perception of the major powers (China, the European Union, India, Japan, Russia and the US) and provides some clues as to which major power does the region trust the most (or the least).

The survey concludes with Section V which looks at three aspects of soft power – tertiary education, tourism and foreign language – as proxies of the major powers’ influence in Southeast Asia.

Bringing electricity to all corners of Southeast Asia


By Ali Al-Saffar
IEA Energy Analyst
19 December 2017

Grid extensions have formed the bulk 

This commentary draws from the Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2017, a WEO Special Report, published in October.

Providing electricity access for all remains a critical topic in many parts of the developing world. The challenge is especially acute in Southeast Asia, one of the most dynamic regions of the global energy system, but whose rich and varied environment defies one-size-fits-all energy solutions.

Thanks to growing economies and burgeoning and urbanising middle classes, energy demand in Southeast Asia grows at one of the fastest rates in the world. Still, around 65 million people across the ten Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries are without access to electricity. In a recent special report on the region, we looked in detail at how to close this gap.
Tiếp tục đọc “Bringing electricity to all corners of Southeast Asia”