What effect did the Crusades have on the Middle East?

The Europeans besiege Jerusalem, seeking to "liberate" it from Muslim rule, 1099.
The Crusaders or Franks attack Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099. Getty Images

Updated June 13, 2017

Between 1095 and 1291, Christians from western Europe launched a series of eight major invasions against the Middle East. These attacks, called the Crusades, were aimed at “liberating” the Holy Land and Jerusalem from Muslim rule.

The Crusades were sparked by religious fervor in Europe, by exhortations from various Popes, and by the need to rid Europe of excess warriors left over from regional wars.

What effect did these attacks, which came from out of the blue from the perspective of Muslims and Jews in the Holy Land, have on the Middle East? Tiếp tục đọc “What effect did the Crusades have on the Middle East?”